July 2017

July 31, 2017
Legal Bases of the Philippine Educational System

Here are the bases of the Philippine Educational System. The texts below are the articles,section, and the republic acts under the Philippine Constitution.


The Philippine Constitutions

1. 1935 CONST. Article XIV Section 5
2. 1973 CONST. Article XV Section 8 (1-8)
3. 1987 CONST. Article XIV Sections 1-5(5)


Article XIV Sections 1-5(5)

Section 1. The state shall protect and promote the right of all the citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
Section 2. The state shall:
  1. Establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society;
  2. Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age;
  3. Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged;
  4. Encourage non-formal, informal and indigenous learning system, as well as self- learning independent and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and
  5. Provide adult citizens, the disabled and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency and skills.
Section 3.
  1. All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula.
  2. They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote efficiency.
  3. At the option expressed in writing by the parent or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in the public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, additional cost to the Government.
Section 4.
  1. The state recognizes the complementary roles of the public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions.
  2. Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be allowed solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions. The control and administration of educational institutions shall vested in citizens of the Philippines. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
  3. All revenues and assets of non- stock, non- profit educational institutions used actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions subject to the limitations provided by law including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment.
  4. Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants endowments, donations or contributions used actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
Section 5.
  1. The State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs.
  2. Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
  3. Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable and equitable admission and academic requirements.
  4. The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non- teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State.
  5. The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.


This was an act providing for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of education. In accordance with Section 2, this act shall apply to and govern both formal and non- formal system in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational system.
As provided by this Act, the national development goals are as follows:
  1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress.
  2. To assure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth; and
  3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in changing world.
It is also stated in Section 3 that:
The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education, regardless of sex, age, creed socio- economic status, physical and mental conditions, racial or ethnic origin, political or other affiliation. The State shall therefore promote and maintain equality of access to education as well as the benefits of education by all its citizens.


  1. The right to receive competent instruction, relevant quality education.
  2. The right to freely choose their field of study subject to the existing curricula and continue their course up to graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency or violations of disciplinary regulations.
  3. The right to school guidance and counseling services.
  4. The right to access to his owns school records and the confidentiality of it.
  5. The right to issuance of official certificates, diplomas, transcript of records, grades, transfer credentials and similar document within thirty days from request.
  6. The right to publish a student newspaper and invite resource persons during symposia, assemblies and other activities.
  7. The right to free expression of opinions and suggestions and to effective channels of communication with appropriate academic and administrative bodies of the school or institutions.
  8. The right to form or establish, join and participate in organizations and societies recognized by the school…, or to form, join and maintain organizations and societies for purposes not contrary to law.
  9. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those approved by their organizations and societies.


  1. Free expression of opinions and suggestions.
  2. To be provided with free legal service by the appropriate government office in case of public school personnel and the school authorities concerned in case of private school personnel, when charged in administrative, civil and/or criminal proceedings, by parties other than the school authorities concerned, for actions committed directly in the lawful discharged of professional duties and/or in defense of school policies.
  3. Establish join, maintain labor organization of their choice to promote their welfare and defend their interest.
  4. To be free from involuntary contributions except those imposed by their own organizations.


  1. Right to be free compulsory assignment not related to their duties defined in their appointment or employment contracts unless compensated thereof. (additional compensation Sec. 14 R.A. 4670- at least 25% his regular remuneration)
  2. Right to intellectual property………
  3. Teachers are persons in authority when in lawful discharge of duties and responsibilities… shall therefore be accorded due respect and protection (Commonwealth Act No. 578)
  4. Teachers shall be given opportunity to choose career alternatives for advancements.


  1. School administrators shall be deemed persons in authority while in the lawful discharge of their duties and responsibilities…. Shall be accorded due respect and protection (Commonwealth Act No. 578)


  1. The right of their governing boards…….to adopt and enforce administrative or management systems.
  2. The right of institutions of higher learning to determine on academic grounds who shall be admitted to study, who may teach, and who shall be the subjects of the study and research.


  1. Voluntary Accreditation (Section 29)
  2. Teachers and Administrators obligations and qualification (Sections 176 and 17)
  3. Government Financial Assistance to Private Schools (Section 41)


1.  Republic Act No. 74

This law was enacted on January 21, 1901 by the Philippine Commission, and provided:
a. Establishment of the Department of Public Instruction headed by the General superintendent

b. The archipelago was divided into school divisions and districts for effective management of the school system.

c. English was made as medium of instruction in all levels of schooling

d. Optional religious instructions in all schools (Section 16)

e. Establishment of a Trade school in Manila (Philippine College of Arts and Trade- PCAT now known as Technological University of the Philippines), a school of Agriculture in Negros, a Normal school in Manila (Philippine Normal School) (Section 18)

• Philippine Normal School, however, was renamed Philippine Normal College (PNC) by virtue of Republic Act No. 416 on June 18, 1949. And on December 26, 1991, the PNC was converted to Philippine Normal University as provided by Republic Act No. 7168.

2. Republic Act No. 2706

This was known as the “Private School Law”, enacted on March 10, 1917 by the Philippine Legislature, which made obligatory the recognition and inspection of private schools and colleges by the Secretary of Public Instruction so as to maintain a standard of efficiency in all private schools and colleges in the country.

This law was amended by Commonwealth Act No. 180 passed on November 13, 1936 which provided that:

The Secretary of Public Instruction was vested with power to “supervise, inspect and regulate said schools and colleges in order to determine the efficiency of instruction given in the same.”

And all private schools come under the supervision and regulation of the Secretary of DPI, thus eliminating “diploma mills” and substandard schools.

3. Commonwealth Act No. 1 (Amended by R.A. 9163)

Known as the “National Defense Act” passed by the Philippine Assembly on December 21, 1935, which provided in Section 81 that:
“Preparatory Military training shall be given with the youth in the elementary grade school at the age of ten years and shall extend through the remainder of his schooling into college or post-secondary education.
By virtue of Presidential Decree 1706, issued by the late President Marcos on August 8, 1980, otherwise known as the “National Service Law”, Commonwealth Act No. 1 was amended, and required all citizens to render, civic welfare service, law enforcement service and military service.

4. Commonwealth Act No. 80

This law created the Office of Adult Education on October 26, 1936, so as to eliminate illiteracy and to give vocational and citizenship training to adult citizens of the country.

5. Commonwealth Act No. 578

Enacted on June 8, 1940, conferred the status of “persons in authority” upon the teachers, professors, and persons charged with the supervision of public or duly recognized private schools, colleges and universities.

This Act also provided a penalty of imprisonment ranging from six months and one day to six years and a fine ranging from 500 to 1, 000 pesos upon any person found guilty of assault upon those teaching personnel.

6. Commonwealth Act No. 586 (Repealed by R.A. 896)

This is known as Education Act of 1940. It was approved on August 7, 1940 by the Philippine Assembly.
The law provided for the following:
a. Reduction of seven- year elementary course to six- year elementary course.

b. Fixing the school entrance age to seven.

c. National support of elementary education.

d. Compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children who enroll in Grade I.

e. Introduction of double- single session- one class in the morning and another in the afternoon under one teacher to accommodate more children.

7. Commonwealth Act No. 589

This law, approved on August 19, 1940, established a school ritual in all public and private elementary and secondary schools in the Philippines.
The ritual consists of solemn and patriotic ceremonies that include the singing of the National Anthem and Patriotic Pledges.

8. Republic Act No. 139 (Repealed by R. A. 8047)

Enacted on June 14, 1947, and the Board of Textbooks. This law provided that all public schools must only use books that are approved by the Board for a period of six years from the date of their adoption.

The private schools may use books of their choice, provided the Board of Textbooks has no objections with those books.

9. Republic Act No. 896

Enacted on June 20, 1953 and known as the Elementary Education Act of 1953, it repealed Commonwealth Act 586 and provided for the following:
a. Restoration of Grade VII (but never implemented due to lack of funds)

b. Abolition of the double - single session and return to the former practice of only one

c. Class under one teacher in the primary and three teachers to two classes or five teachers to three classes in the intermediate level

d. Compulsory completion of the elementary grades

e. Compulsory enrollment of children in the public schools upon attaining seven years of age.

10. Republic Act No. 1124 (Repealed by R. A. 7722)

Approved on June 16, 1954, this law created the Board of National Education charged with the duty of formulating general educational policies and directing the educational interests of the nation.
However, this Board which was later renamed National Board of Education (P.D. No. 1), was abolished bu virtue of the Creation of the board of Higher Education as stipulated in Batas Pambansa Blg. 232. The Board’s function is now assumed by the commission on Higher Education or CHED by virtue of Republic Act No. 7722.

11. Republic Act No. 1265 (amended by R. A. 8491)

This law was approved on June 11, 1955, and provided that a daily flag ceremony shall be compulsory in all educational institutions. This includes the singing of the Philippine National Anthem.

12. Republic Act No. 1425

It was approved on June 12, 1956, it prescribed the inclusion in the curricula of all schools, both public and private, from elementary schools to the universities, the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal especially the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo.

13. Republic Act No. 4670

Known as the “Magna Carta for Public School Teachers”. This was approved on June 18, 1966 to promote and improve the social and economic status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their employment and career prospects.
It also provided the following:
  1. Recruitment qualifications for teachers
  2. Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers
  3. Teaching hours- 6 hours of classroom teaching (maximum load)
  4. Additional compensation- 25% of the regular remuneration
  5. Health and injury benefits (thru the GSIS)
  6. One year study leave (sabbatical leave) after seven years of continuous teaching, the teacher should receive 60% of the monthly salary.
  7. One range salary increase upon retirement (basis computing the retirement fee).
  8. Freedom to form organizations.

14. Republic Act No. 1079

Approved on June 15, 1959, it provided that Civil Service eligibility shall be permanent and shall have no time limit.

15. Republic Act No. 6655

Known as the “Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988”, it was approved on May 26, 1988 and provided for:
a. Free public secondary education to all qualified citizens and promote quality education at all level.

b. No tuition or other fees shall be collected except fees related to membership in the school community such I.D., student organization and publication.

c. Non- payment of these shall not hinder a student from enrollment or graduation.

d. Nationalization of all public secondary schools ( Section 7)

e. A student who fails in majority of his academic subjects for two consecutive years could no longer avail of their program.

July 31, 2017

Weiner's Attribution Theory

One of the most influential theoretical framework in social psychology is the Attribution Theory. It was developed by Bernard Weiner. Attribution theory assumes that people try to determine why people do what they do, that is, interpret causes to an event or behavior. 

A three-stage process underlies an attribution:

  1. Behavior must be observed/perceived
  2. Behavior must be determined to be intentional
  3. Behavior attributed to internal or external causes

Weiner’s attribution theory is mainly about achievement. According to him, the most important factors affecting attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. 

Attributions are classified along three causal dimensions:

  1. Focus of control (two poles: internal vs. external)
  2. Stability (do causes change over time or not?)
  3. Controllability (causes one can control such as skills vs. causes one cannot control such as luck, others’ actions, etc.)

When one succeeds, one attributes successes internally (“my own skill”). When a rival succeeds, one tends to credit external (e.g. luck). When one fails or makes mistakes, we will more likely use external attribution, attributing causes to situational factors rather than blaming ourselves. When others fail or make mistakes, internal attribution is often used, saying it is due to their internal personality factors.
A. Attribution is a three stage process:
1. Behavior is observed,
2. Behavior is determined to be deliberate, and
3. Behavior is attributed to internal or external causes.

B. Achievement can be attributed to:
1. Effort
2. Ability
3. Level of task difficulty, or
4. Luck

C. Causal dimensions of behavior are: 
1. Locus of control
2. Stability and 
3. Controllability

  1. Weiner, B. (1972). Attribution theory, achievement motivation, and the educational process. Review of educational research42(2), 203-215. 
  2. JL, "Attribution Theory (Weiner)," in Learning Theories, January 17, 2007, https://www.learning-theories.com/weiners-attribution-theory.html.

July 31, 2017
Arthur Staats Psychological Behaviorism
Psychological Behaviorism
The first person who developed behaviorism was Watson. The umbrella theory included the psychological behaviorism in 1912. Skinner extended the theory and formulated the radical behaviorism. Recently, Staats argued for the psychological behaviorism that emphasizes person’s psychology and personality.

Psychological Behaviorism by Arthur Staats

Psychological Behaviorism extends the behaviorism. It states that a person’s psychology can be explained through observable behaviors.
According to Staats, there are three components of person’s psychology:
1. Personality
2. Learning
3. Emotion
Staats was the first to propose that personality consists of a collection of learned behaviors that arise from the interplay of a person’s environment, biology, cognition, and emotions. This theory of personality is a main component of psychological behaviorism that separates it from theories of behaviorism that preceded it. Behaviorism as a whole describes the theory that positive and negative reinforcements determine behavior.

Personality Theory

According to Staats there are three behavioral repertoires that contribute to a theory of personality:
1. Sensory-Motor Repertoire which includes sensory-motor skills and attentional and social skills.
2. Language-Cognitive Repertoire
3. Emotional-Motivational Repertoire

 When an infant is born, it lacks these repertoires and only later acquires them through complex learning and becomes able to deal with various situations. An individual experiences life according to their repertoires, and as they grow, they develop a basic behavioral repertoire (BBR). An individual’s BBR and their life situation will inform their behavior, which constitutes their personality. According to this model, biology interacts with environment and learning to create an individual’s personality.

Psychological Behaviorism considers the study of personality, including how it is affected and how it affects behavior, to be important. Personality tests are seen as significant for how they might be able to predict what behaviors people will exhibit. Tests also help identify behaviors and the contexts that produce them, helping to make it possible to create those environments that produce desired behaviors and prevent undesired behaviors from developing. One example is of a study where children learning the letters of the alphabet were found to be learning repertoires that promoted intelligence.


As children develop, they learn basic repertoires upon which other and more complex repertoires are built. This is called cumulative learning, which psychological behaviorism states is a kind of learning unique to humans.

According to this cumulative learning model, when children learn a repertoire such as language, they can then build upon that repertoire with other ones such as reading and grammar. From there, learning those repertoires of reading and grammar lead to the acquisition of further complex repertoires.

Staats’ research with his own children and in his studies emphasized the importance of parenting to a child’s development. He showed that early training of children in language and cognitive development led to more advanced language development and demonstration of higher intelligence on intelligence tests. There have been many studies of this topic in the field of behavior analysis that support his findings.


Staats indicated that many words carry a positive or negative connotation, and they transfer that association to anything to which they are paired.
Such “emotional words” have the purpose of:
1) Acting as rewards or punishments for behaviors
2) Encouraging either approach or avoidance behaviors
This can be seen in the case of a compliment paid to a person for a certain behavior, who will be more likely to repeat that behavior. This demonstrates emotional words creating an emotional response.

Behavior Disorders

Instead of accepting the concept of mental illness, psychological behaviorism argues that behavior disorders are simply learned repertoires of behaviors that are abnormal or a lack of learned repertoires that allow the individual to manage life events. psychological behaviorism suggests a clinical approach for treating behavior disorders through behavior analysis and also suggests prevention of the conditions that create them. The DSM provides descriptions of abnormal repertoires and lack of normal repertoires that Psychological Behaviorism uses in its theories of behavior disorders.


  1. Staats, W. W. (1996). Behavior and personality: Psychological behaviorism. Springer Publishing Company.
  2. Staats, A. W. (1993). Personality Theory, Abnormal Psychology, and Psychological Measurement A Psychological Behaviorism. Behavior modification17(1), 8-42.
  3.  J L, "Psychological Behaviorism (Staats)," in Learning Theories, February 11, 2016, https://www.learning-theories.com/psychological-behaviorism-staats.html.

July 31, 2017
LET Reviewer for English Major

Here are the free printable LET Reviewer (English Major) for you.
These will surely help you pass the LET.
Good Luck and God Bless

LET Reviewer (English Major)
Download Links:

How to download?
Please read this Simple Downloading Instruction

Note: All files are safe and free from any malware or virus.

For the complete list of LET Reviewers click the link below:

Thanks and Credit to Author

July 31, 2017
LET Reviewer (Summary in Bullet Form)

Welcome Future Teachers!
This is the free LET REVIEWER (Summary) for you. 
You can download it free just click the link below.
Good Luck and God Bless

Summary in Bullet Form
How to download?
Please read this Simple Downloading Instruction

Note: All files are safe and free from any malware or virus.

For the complete list of LET Reviewers click the link below:

Thanks and Credit to the Original Author

July 29, 2017
Important Dates and Events in Philippine History

Here are some of the important dates in the Philippine History:


  • January 1, 1571 – LaVilla de San Miguel renamed Ciudad del Santissimo, Nobre de Jesus “Sto Nino” 
  • January 12, 1889 – La Association Hispano founded by Miguel Morayta to introduce changes in the Philippines and have a Filipino representative in the Spanish Cortes 
  • January 20, 1872 – Meeting in Cavite led by Sargent Lamadrid and killed their Spanish officers 
  • January 23, 1899 – Inauguration of the first republic (Mololos) Aguinaldo as president 


  • February 2, 1543 – Villalobos named Samar and Layte “Pilipinas” 
  • February 13, 1565 – Miguel Lopes de Villalobos reached Cebu 
  • February 14, 1899 – Outbreak of Filipino – American War (Sta. Mesa Manila) 
  • February 15, 1898 – Spanish blew up the amiracan warship in Havana Cuba 
  • February 15, 1889 – The newspaper La Soliraridad founded by Graciano Lopes Jaena 
  • February 17, 1872 – Execution of GOMBURZA 
  • February 18, 1891 – Rizal second novel El Filibusterismo was publish and finance by Valentin Ventura 


  • March 16, 1521 – Magellan sighted the island of samar 
  • March 16, 1565 – Blood compact Legaspi and Rajah Sikatuna of Bohol 
  • March 17, 1521 – Magellan landed Homnhon “Archipelago of St. Lazarus” 
  • March 22, 1897 – Tejeros Convention resolved the conflict between Magdalo and Magdiwang 
  • March 23, 1935 – ConCon was headed by C.M. Recto 
  • March 23, 1901 – Gen. Aguinaldo captured at Palanan 
  • March 24, 1934 – Creation of Commonwealth Government as provided by Tyding McDuffie Law and approved by US President F. Roosevelt 
  • March 14, 1947 – Formal agreement between US and Philippine (22 sites as military bases for 99yrs in return AFP accepted US $100 M worth of military equipment) 
  • March 17, 1957 – Pres. Magsaysay died in a plane crash in Mt. Manunggal Cebu 
  • March 17, 1957 – Garcia become the president of the Philippines 
  • March 29, 1512 – Blood compact Magellan and Rajah Kulambo of Limasawa 
  • March 29, 1942 – Creation of HUKBALAHAP (Luis Taruc) 
  • March 31, 1899 – Transfer of capital republic from Malolos to San Fernando Pampanga 
  • March 31, 1521 – First mass officiated b y Father Pedro de Valderrama 


  • April 4, 1947 – Pres. Roxas died of cardiac arrest at Clark air base 
  • April 4, 1947 – Elpidio Quirino become the president 
  • April 9, 1942 – Fall of Bataan, Death March from Bataan to San Fernando Pampanga 
  • April 13-14, 1671 – defeat of the 6 Dutch led by Juan Ronquillo in battle of Playa Honda, Zam 
  • April 25, 1898 – US declare war against Spain 
  • April 27, 1521 – Magellan killed in the battle of Mactan 
  • April 27, 1565 – First Spanish settlement establish by Legaspi name La Villa de San Miguel 
  • April 30, 1846 – Approved of Philippine Rehabilitation Act by the US. 


  • May 1, 1898 – US naval under George Dewey defeat the Spain armada led by Patrico Montojo in famous battle of Manila Bay 
  • May 6, 1942 – Fall of Corregidor Island (Gen. Jonathan Wainwright) – (Gem. Homma of Japan) 
  • May 10, 1897 – Execution of Bonifacio brathers 
  • May 12, 1935 – SAKDALISTA Party by Benigno Ramos against the Commonwealth Government 
  • May 12, 1962 – Macapagal change the date of Independence day from July 4, 1946 to June 12, 1898 
  • May 16, 1584 – Royal Audiencia referred to as the Supreme Court during Spanish 
  • May 17, 1764 – Britain surrendered the Philippines to Spanish 
  • May 28, 1898 – Gen. Aguinaldo waved the Philippine flag for the first time to celebrate its victory 
  • May 31, 1764 – Truce was signed between France and England 


  • June 3, 1571 – Manila conquered by Martin de Goiti 
  • June 5, 1899 – Assassination of Antonio Luna at Cabanatuan 
  • July 7, 1987 – Biak-na-Bato revolutionary government was established 
  • June 12, 1898 – Proclamation of Philippines Independence by Gen. Aguinaldo 
  • June 18, 1908 – UP was established (Murray Barlett as first President) and (Ignacio Villamor as first Filipino President) 
  • June 19, 1861 – birth of Jose Rizal 
  • June 24, 1571 – Manila was named “Distinguished and Ever Loyal City” by Legaspi and First Governor-General of the Philippines 


  • July 3, 1892 – La Liga Filipina founded by Dr. Rizal 
  • July 4, 1946 – Inauguration of 3rd Republic and the signing of the Treaty of General legalized the retention of US bases in the Philippines 
  • July 7, 1892 – Rizal exiled in Dapitan for 4yrs 
  • July 7, 1892 – KKK organized by Andres Bonifacion in Azcarraga st. (C.M. Recto) 


  • August 6, 1945 – First Atomic bomb dropped in Hiroshima Japan 
  • August 8, 1963 – Macapagal approved the Agriculture Land Reform to abolish tenancy 
  • August 9, 1945 – Second Atomic bomb dropped in Nagasaki Japan 
  • August 13, 1898 – Mock battle of manila bay between Spain and America 
  • August 14, 1898 – Military government under General Wesley Merit 
  • August 19, 1896 – Katipunan was discovered by Fr. Mariano Gil trough Teodoro Patino 
  • August 23, 1896 – Philippine Revolution “Cry of Balintawak” 
  • August 25, 1896 - Battle of Pasong Tamo 
  • August 26, 1930 – Founding of the Communist Party of the Philippines CPP by Crisostomo Evangelista 
  • August 29, 1916 - Creation of bicameral legislature as granted by the jones law 
  • August 30, 1896 – Battle of Pinaglabanan 
  • August 31, 1896 – Gen. Aguinaldo led the uprising in Kawit Cavite 


  • September 2, 1945 – Japanese imperial surrendered and ended the war in asia pacific 
  • September 5, 1955 – The Laure-Langley Agreement was replacing the Bell Trade Act 
  • September 6, 1834 – manila was opened to world trade led to an era of commercial revolution I the Philippines 
  • September 8-10, 1954 – SEATO (Southeast Asian Treaty Organization) 
  • September 12, 1896 – 13 men from Cavite know as “Los Tresce Martirez” was executed 
  • September 28, 1901 – Gen. Antonio Lucban attacked the American Garrison in Balangiga, Samar 


  • October 3, 1646 – defeat of Dutch in battle of manila 
  • October 5, 1762 – manila was conquered by British forces under Gen. William Draper and Admiral Samuel Cornish 
  • October 6, 1913 – Francis Burton Harrison first American Governor General of the Philippines 
  • October 13, 1913 – Signing of underwood-simons tariff law (open trade Phil. and American) 
  • October 14, 1943 – Inauguration of Japanese puppet republic Jose P. Laurel as President 
  • October 16, 1907 – First Philippine Assembly (M. Quezon as M.Floor Leader) and (S. Osmena as Speaker) 
  • October 20, 1943 – McArthur landed the Red Beach, Polo Layte (Osmena as President with C. Romulo) 
  • October 24 – 26, 1944 – Battle of Leyte Gulf 
  • October 31, 1829 – Dagohoy Longest Revolt in the Philippines lasted 85yrs 


  • November 4, 1841 – Apolinario Dela Cruz “Hermano Pule” was executed by Spanish 
  • November 10, 1953 – Magsaysay and Garcia were elected as Pres and Vice Pres 
  • November 11, 1957 – Macapagal (Poor boy from Lubao) elected as President of the Philippine 
  • November 15, 1935 – Inauguration of Commonwealth government with Quezon as president and Osmena as vice president 
  • November 30, 1574 – De Goiti was killed by Limahong 


  • December 2, 1899 – Gen. Gregorio del Pilar was killed by the Americans 
  • December 7, 1933 – Right of Suffrage was granted to Filipino by Gov. Frank Murphy 
  • December 8, 1941 – Bombing of Pearl Harbor 
  • December 10, 1898 – Treaty of Paris was signed between Spain and America 
  • December 15, 1897 – treaty Biak-na-Bato was signed by Pedro Paterno and Gov. Primo de Rivera 
  • December 21, 1898 – The Philippines was considered American benevolent assimilation 
  • December 26, 1941 – Declaration of manila as open city by Gen. McArthur 
  • December 30, 1896 – Execution of Rizal at Luneta de Bagumbayan

educational theories and their proponents
The following are the works, theories, ideas, discoveries and their proponents:

  • Jean Piaget - Cognitive Development , Info Processing , Dynamic Interrelation.
  • Sigmund Freud - Psychosexual Theory of Development , Psychoanalytic
  • Erik Erickson - Psychosocial Theory of Development
  • Lawrence Kohlberg - Moral Development, Moral Dillema
  • Burrhus Frederic Skinner - Operant Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov - Classical Conditioning
  • Edward Lee Thorndike - Connectionism
  • Otto Loewi - Discovered “Acetylchloline” respobsible in stimulation of muscles. 
  • Ulf Von Euler - Discovered “Norepinephrine” bringing our nervous system into “high alert”. 
  • Arvid Carlsson - Discovered “Dopamine” the reward mechanisms in the brain. 
  • Albert Bandura - Social learning, Neo - Behaviorism
  • Robert Gagne - Sequence of Instruction
  • Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs , Motivation theory
  • William Kohler - Insight Learning
  • Robert Havighurst - Development Task Theory
  • Benjamin Bloom - Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy
  • Simpsons / Anita Harrow - Psychomotor Domain
  • David Krathwohl - Affective Domain
  • Jerome Bruner - Constructivist, Spiral Curr, Instrumental Conceptualism 
  • Lev Vygotsky - Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive Development, Linguistic Theory, Scaffolding 
  • Edgar Dale - Cone of Experience
  • Kohler, Koffka, Weirtheimer — Gestalt Psychology
  • John Locke - Tabularasa , Empiricism
  • Howard Gardner - Multiple Intellegence
  • Noam Chomsky - Language Acquisition Theory, Father of Linguistic, 
  • Nativism David Ausubel - Meaningful Learning, Graphic Organizer, Assumption
  • Charles Cooley - Looking Glass Self Theory
  • John Flavel - Metacognition
  • Sandra Bem - Gender Schema Theory
  • Elliot Turriel - Social Domain Theory
  • Robert Sternberg - Triachic Theory Of Intelligence.
  • John Watson - Behaviorial Theory
  • Maria Montessori - Transfer of Learning, Kindergarten preparation of children.
  • Edward Tolman - Purposive Behaviorism and Goal Oriented
  • Edward Torrance - Creative Problem Solving
  • Bernard Weiner - Attribution theory
  • Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence
  • Wilhelm Woundt - German Psychologist founder of Modern Psychology
  • Titchener - Structuralism
  • William James, G. Stanley Hall, James M. Cattell - Promotes Functionalism Psychology 
  • Charles darwin - Theories to mental characteristics as human think, feel & behave ( Evolutionary psychology)
  • Herman Ebbinghaus - Associationism
  • Edwin Guthrie - (Stimulus and Response ) Temporal Conguity
  • Edward Lee Thorndike - “Satisfaction” The Law of Effect
  • Ivan Pavlov - Involuntary Behavior, Classical Conditioning
  • Max Wertheimer - Gestalt Psychology
  • Wolfgang Ratke - Used vernacular for approaching the class.
  • David Froebel - Father of Kindergarten
  • John Bowly - Attainment Theory
  • Edward Boro - Six Thinking Hats Theory
  • Auguste Comte - Father of Sociology
  • Carlos Linnaeus - Father of modern taxonomy.
  • John Amos Comencius - Father of Modern Education
  • Erasmus Desiderius - Father of Humanism/ Social humanism
  • William Kilpatrick - Project method
  • Mencius - Idealistic Wing of Confucianism
  • Hzun Tzu - Realistic Wing of Confusianism
  • Lao Tzu - Taoism, Book "Tao te ching" meaning "The way and its power" Herbart Spencer - Moral Development
  • Pestallozi - Symmetrical and Harmonious Development of Child
  • John Jacques Rosseau - Nature of Child
  • Arnold Gesell - Maturation Theory
  • John Dewey - Learning by Doing

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