July 2017

Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers (R.A. 7836)


Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph, Article 11, of R.A. No. 7836, otherwise known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 and paragraph (a), section 6, P.D. No. 223, as amended, the Board for Professional Teachers hereby adopt the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers.


Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possesse dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence in the practice of their noble profession, and they strictly adhere to, observe, and practice this set of ethical and moral principles, standards, and values.

Article I: Scope and Limitations

Section 1. The Philippine Constitution provides that all educational institution shall offer quality education for all competent teachers. Committed to its full realization, the provision of this Code shall apply, therefore, to all teachers in schools in the Philippines.
Section 2. This Code covers all public and private school teachers in all educational institutions at the preschool, primary, elementary, and secondary levels whether academic, vocational, special, technical, or non-formal. The term “teacher” shall include industrial arts or vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and /or administrative functions in all school at the aforesaid levels, whether on full time or part-time basis.

Article II: The Teacher and the State

Section 1. The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the state; each teacher is a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage as well as to elevate national morality, promote national pride, cultivate love of country, instil allegiance to the constitution and for all duly constituted authorities, and promote obedience to the laws of the state.
Section 2. Every teacher or school official shall actively help carry out the declared policies of the state, and shall take an oath to this effect.
Section 3. In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as much as of his own, every teacher shall be physically, mentally and morally fit.
Section 4. Every teacher shall possess and actualize a full commitment and devotion to duty.
Section 5. A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any political, religious, or other partisan interest, and shall not, directly or indirectly, solicit, require, collect, or receive any money or service or other valuable material from any person or entity for such purposes.
Section 6. Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other constitutional rights and responsibility.
Section 7. A teacher shall not use his position or official authority or influence to coerce any other person to follow any political course of action.
Section 8. Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall have privilege of expounding the product of his researches and investigations; provided that, if the results are inimical to the declared policies of the State, they shall be brought to the proper authorities for appropriate remedial action.

Article III: The Teacher and the Community

Section 1. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the development of the youth; he shall, therefore, render the best service by providing an environment conducive to such learning and growth.
Section 2. Every teacher shall provide leadership and initiative to actively participate in community movements for moral, social, educational, economic and civic betterment.
Section 3. Every teacher shall merit reasonable social recognition for which purpose he shall behave with honour and dignity at all times and refrain from such activities as gambling, smoking, drunkenness, and other excesses, much less illicit relations.
Section 4. Every teacher shall live for and with the community and shall, therefore, study and understand local customs and traditions in order to have sympathetic attitude, therefore, refrain from disparaging the community.
Section 5. Every teacher shall help the school keep the people in the community informed about the school’s work and accomplishments as well as its needs and problems.
Section 6. Every teacher is intellectual leader in the community, especially in the barangay, and shall welcome the opportunity to provide such leadership when needed, to extend counselling services, as appropriate, and to actively be involved in matters affecting the welfare of the people.
Section 7. Every teacher shall maintain harmonious and pleasant personal and official relations with other professionals, with government officials, and with the people, individually or collectively.
Section 8. A teacher possesses freedom to attend church and worships as appropriate, but shall not use his positions and influence to proselyte others.

Article IV: A Teacher and the Profession

Section 1. Every teacher shall actively insure that teaching is the noblest profession, and shall manifest genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling.
Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education, shall make the best preparations for the career of teaching, and shall be at his best at all times and in the practice of his profession.
Section 3. Every teacher shall participate in the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) program of the Professional Regulation Commission, and shall pursue such other studies as will improve his efficiency, enhance the prestige of the profession, and strengthen his competence, virtues, and productivity in order to be nationally and internationally competitive.
Section 4. Every teacher shall help, if duly authorized, to seek support from the school, but shall not make improper misrepresentations through personal advertisements and other questionable means.
Section 5. Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a manner that makes it dignified means for earning a decent living.

Article V: The Teachers and the Profession

Section 1. Teachers shall, at all times, be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty, mutual confidence, and faith in one another, self-sacrifice for the common good; and full cooperation with colleagues. When the best interest of the learners, the school, or the profession is at stake in any controversy, teachers shall support one another.
Section 2. A teacher is not entitled to claim credit or work not of his own, and shall give due credit for the work of others which he may use.
Section 3. Before leaving his position, a teacher shall organize for whoever assumes the position such records and other data as are necessary to carry on the work.
Section 4. A teacher shall hold inviolate all confidential information concerning associates and the school, and shall not divulge to anyone documents which has not been officially released, or remove records from files without permission.
Section 5. It shall be the responsibility of every teacher to seek correctives for what may appear to be an unprofessional and unethical conduct of any associate. However, this may be done only if there is incontrovertible evidence for such conduct.
Section 6. A teacher may submit to the proper authorities any justifiable criticism against an associate, preferably in writing, without violating the right of the individual concerned.
Section 7. A teacher may apply for a vacant position for which he is qualified; provided that he respects the system of selection on the basis of merit and competence; provided, further, that all qualified candidates are given the opportunity to be considered.

Article VI: The Teacher and Higher Authorities in the Profession Section 

1. Every teacher shall make it his duty to make an honest effort to understand and support the legitimate policies of the school and the administration regardless of personal feeling or private opinion and shall faithfully carry them out.
Section 2. A teacher shall not make any false accusations or charges against superiors, especially under anonymity. However, if there are valid charges, he should present such under oath to competent authority.
Section 3. A teacher shall transact all official business through channels except when special conditions warrant a different procedure, such as when special conditions are advocated but are opposed by immediate superiors, in which case, the teacher shall appeal directly to the appropriate higher authority.
Section 4. Every teacher, individually or as part of a group, has a right to seek redress against injustice to the administration and to extent possible, shall raise grievances within acceptable democratic possesses. In doing so, they shall avoid jeopardizing the interest and the welfare of learners whose right to learn must be respected.
Section 5. Every teacher has a right to invoke the principle that appointments, promotions, and transfer of teachers are made only on the basis of merit and needed in the interest of the service.
Section 6. A teacher who accepts a position assumes a contractual obligation to live up to his contract, assuming full knowledge of employment terms and conditions.

Article VII: School Officials, Teachers, and Other Personnel Section 

1. All school officials shall at all times show professional courtesy, helpfulness and sympathy towards teachers and other personnel, such practices being standards of effective school supervision, dignified administration, responsible leadership and enlightened directions.
Section 2. School officials, teachers, and other school personnel shall consider it their cooperative responsibility to formulate policies or introduce important changes in the system at all levels.
Section 3. School officials shall encourage and attend the professional growth of all teachers under them such as recommending them for promotion, giving them due recognition for meritorious performance, and allowing them to participate in conferences in training programs.
Section 4. No school officials shall dismiss or recommend for dismissal a teacher or other subordinates except for cause.
Section 5. School authorities concern shall ensure that public school teachers are employed in accordance with pertinent civil service rules, and private school teachers are issued contracts specifying the terms and conditions of their work; provided that they are given, if qualified, subsequent permanent tenure, in accordance with existing laws.

Article VIII: The Teachers and Learners

Section 1. A teacher has a right and duty to determine the academic marks and the promotions of learners in the subject or grades he handles, provided that such determination shall be in accordance with generally accepted procedures of evaluation and measurement. In case of any complaint, teachers concerned shall immediately take appropriate actions, observing due process.
Section 2. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are of first and foremost concern, and shall deal justifiably and impartially with each of them.
Section 3. Under no circumstance shall a teacher be prejudiced or discriminate against a learner.
Section 4. A teacher shall not accept favours or gifts from learners, their parents or others in their behalf in exchange for requested concessions, especially if undeserved.
Section 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials other what is authorized for such service.
Section 6. A teacher shall base the evaluation of the learner’s work only in merit and quality of academic performance.
Section 7. In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent love develop between teacher and learner, the teacher shall exercise utmost professional discretion to avoid scandal, gossip and preferential treatment of the learner.
Section 8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestation of poor scholarship.
Section 9. A teacher shall ensure that conditions contribute to the maximum development of learners are adequate, and shall extend needed assistance in preventing or solving learner’s problems and difficulties.

Article IX: The Teachers and Parents

Section 1. Every teacher shall establish and maintain cordial relations with parents, and shall conduct himself to merit their confidence and respect.
Section 2. Every teacher shall inform parents, through proper authorities, of the progress and deficiencies of learner under him, exercising utmost candour and tact in pointing out the learner's deficiencies and in seeking parent’s cooperation for the proper guidance and improvement of the learners.
Section 3. A teacher shall hear parent’s complaints with sympathy and understanding, and shall discourage unfair criticism.

Article X: The Teacher and Business

Section 1. A teacher has the right to engage, directly or indirectly, in legitimate income generation; provided that it does not relate to or adversely affect his work as a teacher.
Section 2. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect to the financial matters such as in the settlement of his debts and loans in arranging satisfactorily his private financial affairs.
Section 3. No teacher shall act, directly or indirectly, as agent of, or be financially interested in, any commercial venture which furnish textbooks and other school commodities in the purchase and disposal of which he can exercise official influence, except only when his assignment is inherently, related to such purchase and disposal; provided they shall be in accordance with the existing regulations; provided, further, that members of duly recognized teachers cooperatives may participate in the distribution and sale of such commodities.

Article XI: The Teacher as a Person

Section 1. A teacher is, above all, a human being endowed with life for which it is the highest obligation to live with dignity at all times whether in school, in the home, or elsewhere.
Section 2. A teacher shall place premium upon self-discipline as the primary principle of personal behaviour in all relationships with others and in all situations.
Section 3. A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified personality which could serve as a model worthy of emulation by learners, peers and all others.
Section 4. A teacher shall always recognize the Almighty God as guide of his own destiny and of the destinies of men and nations.

Article XII: Disciplinary Actions

Section 1. Any violation of any provision of this code shall be sufficient ground for the imposition against the erring teacher of the disciplinary action consisting of revocation of his Certification of Registration and License as a Professional Teacher, suspension from the practice of teaching profession, or reprimand or cancellation of his temporary/special permit under causes specified in Sec. 23, Article III or R.A. No. 7836, and under Rule 31, Article VIII, of the Rules and Regulations Implementing R.A. 7836.

Article XIII: Effectivity

Section 1. This Code shall take effect upon approval by the Professional Regulation Commission and after sixty (60) days following its publication in the Official Gazette or any newspaper of general circulation, whichever is earlier.

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John Sweller Cognitive Load Theory


This article critically examines ‘cognitive load theory’ (CLT), its development and its ongoing impact on learning design. It traces the theory’s emergence in the eighties to its most recent formulations and impact on instructional design. To present an accurate picture of this, a mix of academic literature, white papers and e-learning industry magazines were reviewed. A list of these publications can be found in the bibliography. 

What is ‘cognitive load’? 

Cognitive load is a term used in cognitive psychology to describe the burden placed on the working memory by a task or information. The original notion was introduced by George Miller in his paper ‘The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information’ (1956) in which he identified that our cognitive system is only able to process seven (plus or minus two) items before a decrease in retention is seen. The information that we have to process is therefore known as ‘cognitive load’. When there is too much information for us to process, this is described as ‘cognitive overload’. On the other hand, when there’s not enough information for us to process, this is known as ‘cognitive underload’—something that has not been explored in detail outside an academic sphere.

Cognitive Load Theory

Cognitive load theory was first formulated in the 1980s by John Sweller, an educational psychologist who was seeking to identify more effective ways to teach mathematics and science—particularly complex problems. Through empirical studies that tested information processing, Sweller identified a set of principles relating to the effects of cognitive overload on knowledge acquisition and application. These principles were the basis from which CLT was developed. Sweller studied the effects of cognitive load – defined as a demand on working memory, either through storage or processing – during problem solving and later specified ‘a set of propositions that are intended to constitute the elements of a cognitive technology of instruction in mathematics and science’ (Sweller, 1989). By the early 1990s he had formalised these propositions as ‘cognitive load theory’ (CLT). CLT is a cognitive and evidence-based information processing theory that ‘predicts that overload (and lack of learning) occurs when the total amount of load induced by the learning environment exceeds the maximum cognitive capacity of the learner’ (Moreno, 2010, p137). It is recognised as having a significant influence on instructional design theory and practice. Richard E. Mayer, a widely recognised and respected cognitive psychologist and educational theorist, applied CLT particularly to the field of instructional design and technology enhanced learning (TEL) and through his research formulated the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (2005).

Key assumptions CLT is founded on three key assumptions about human cognitive architecture: a limited processing capacity of working memory, a virtually unlimited capacity of long-term memory and a schema theory of mental representations of knowledge (Brünken, Plass and Leutner, 2003). 
• Working memory is where we store small amounts of information for a very short time. Working memory is considered limited when dealing with new sensory information, but not when dealing with schemas 
• Long-term memory is, as its name implies, responsible for holding large amounts of information almost indefinitely 
• Schemas are mental constructs that enable people to understand and categorise information quickly, reducing working memory load. These assumptions are central to Sweller’s classification of a variety of types of cognitive load. In CLT’s initial formulation, Sweller identified two types of cognitive load: extraneous and intrinsic. In 1998, Sweller expanded cognitive load types through the addition of germane (or ‘relevant’) cognitive load.
• Intrinsic load is cognitive load that is inherent in the content or task to be learned, ie its difficulty • Extraneous load is cognitive load that has been introduced by instructional techniques but which could have been avoided by alternative presentation
• Germane cognitive load is that which is used to construct schemas and is therefore essential to CLT In CLT, the three types of cognitive load are considered to be additive: for learning to occur successfully, intrinsic, extraneous and germane cognitive loads together must not exceed working memory processing capacity. CLT has been refined and expanded in the 25 years since its initial formulation. Rather than CLT providing principles for scientific and mathematical instruction, proponents now consider it a universal theory that applies to all content, delivery media and learners.

What’s its general relevance?

To demonstrate the universality of CLT, Clark, Nguyen and Sweller (2006), present at least one example of an empirical study with positive conclusions. On further review, every study related to sciences, mathematics or complex processes. Many of the lessons examined were very short. These studies form the backbone of the evidence for their striking claims for the universality of CLT. A more minor criticism of CLT is that there is over-reliance on worked examples as a teaching method within CLT. Whilst there are many skills and subjects that can be taught through the use of worked examples (eg solving mathematical equations, structuring sentences, computer systems training or learning scientific models), there are others (such as soft skills, creative writing or musical composition) for which that teaching method would be of little use.

Does it have a lasting effect?

There has been a lack of research into the longer-term performance of those who have learnt using techniques intended to manage cognitive load. How meaningful the experimental data presented by proponents of CLT are is therefore in question, as these tests are invariably carried out immediately after the lesson and do not measure the long-term creation and acquisition of schemas. It may be that the principles of CLT are only effective for immediate tests of ‘crammed’ information; this would be an interesting avenue of enquiry. 

Can we really measure cognitive load? 

One of the significant criticisms of CLT is that researchers are unable to standardise a method of measurement for cognitive load. Two general approaches for assessing cognitive load are identified: subjective, eg through asking learners to rate their cognitive load on a Likert scale of between 7 and 9; and objective, eg through physiological measurements (Brünken et al., 2011). However, no method so far identified is without criticism and the lack of agreement over methods to measure cognitive load (or agreement that it is measurable at all) is a significant shortcoming. 

Cognitive load theory and instructional design 

Despite its popularity amongst instructional designers working in the field of TEL, there is a lack of critical engagement with CLT from e-learning practitioners. In this section, we identify principles of CLT that have a bearing on instructional practice and should therefore be examined critically by practitioners. CLT is a theory of interest to instructional designers aiming to create effective training. Indeed, there is a variety of both academic papers and practitioner handbooks that address the impact of CLT on instructional design theories and practice. One of the fundamental shifts in the application of CLT to instructional design came because of the paper, When less is more: Meaningful learning from visual and verbal summaries of science textbook lessons (Mayer, Bove, Bryman, Mars & Tapangco, 1996). This study demonstrates that learners who have read a short, illustrated summary of a textbook passage can recall the information better than those who have read the passage without the illustrated summary. In fact, the results for those who read the passage together with the summary are the same as those who have seen only the illustrated summary. 
These findings were replicated in further studies and eventually led to Mayer’s formulation of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML). This theory is based on three principles: ‘the human information processing system includes dual channels for visual/pictorial and auditory/verbal processing (ie dual-channels assumption); each channel has limited capacity for processing (i.e. limited capacity assumption); and active learning entails carrying out a coordinated set of cognitive processes during learning (ie active processing assumption)’ (Mayer, 2005). Despite its traction, however, there is a lack of critical engagement with CLT within e-learning companies and related communities of practice. A search of e-learning articles and white papers showed many articles introducing the concepts of cognitive load and CLT, and yet very few articles critiqued or explored CLT in detail. This leads to principles of CLT with traction in e-learning communities being accepted uncritically, such as avoidance of extraneous load. Another CLT principle, the technique of ‘chunking’, is frequently cited within e-learning communities, despite no guidance on what a ‘manageable chunk’ looks like. Yet a critical examination of CLT could bear fruit for instructional designers and TEL practitioners. One key question that could be explored is whether intrinsic cognitive load can be changed by instructional treatments. Scholarly opinion is divided. While some, including Sweller himself, argue that it cannot be changed, others suggest ways in which instructional techniques can be used to manipulate intrinsic cognitive load by sequencing or focusing learners’ attention on ‘subsets of interactive elements’ (de Jong, 2011, p. 106). These are described as ‘techniques that may help to control intrinsic load’ by de Jong (2011, p106). Whilst these techniques do not claim to change or reduce the total intrinsic load of a lesson, they may prevent cognitive overload at any one point. They are therefore of interest to instructional designers and practitioners who seek to ensure that cognitive overload is not reached. As discussed in the critiques of CLT, there is no standardised method of measuring the effective level of cognitive load. However, a practitioner in a non-research capacity could use any of the appropriate measures (eg. by subjective surveying of learners) to identify trends across different lesson formats.

Cognitive underload: what is it, and what can we do about it? 

Perhaps the element of CLT that has most wide-reaching implications for instructional design within e-learning is the phenomenon of expertise reversal – that is, creating learning that is targeted at learners with low understanding depresses learning for those with more expertise. As Paas, Renkl and Sweller note, ‘It is generally accepted that performance degrades at the cognitive load extremes of either excessively low load (underload) or excessively high load (overload)’ (2004, p.1). That means the effects of training materials that cause cognitive underload – ie materials that have a low difficulty for some or all learners – are identical to those that cause cognitive overload. 

This is of great significance to instructional designers creating multimedia training where learners have little or no contact with any instructors to vary the difficulty, volume or complexity of instructional materials. Corporate training is often mandatory for learners with a very wide range of abilities and experiences. Stakeholders often request primarily that the volume and difficulty of the material (ie the cognitive load) is at a low enough level to be accessible to all staff. There is generally little concern that this would degrade the performance of members of staff for whom this training would cause cognitive underload. By introducing this concept, instructional designers and e-learning developers could potentially improve learning outcomes.

Mobile learning: is scrolling OK? 

Another key principle of CLT – the avoidance of split-attention effect (‘separate presentation of domain elements that require simultaneous processing’ (De Jong, 2010, p.108)) – is often used in e-learning to justify not including scrolling elements in e-learning, keeping all related content on one page or within one short section, and ensuring all multimedia presentations can be controlled by learners through pause and skip functionality. The thinking is to avoid spatially or temporally separated elements. This is an important principle to examine as e-learning developers move towards responsive frameworks (ie one e-learning program that can be accessed on multiple devices, frequently optimised for mobile browsing). Scrolling is at the heart of these designs (eg the open-source Adapt framework and Epic’s gomo learning authoring tool). Within communities of practice, instructional designers debate the effectiveness of mobile learning and frameworks that promote scrolling, yet cognitive load theory is rarely mentioned in these debates. Much could be gained, then, by engaging in critical review of CLT within the framework of practical instructional design work. It is also important to note that whilst working memory is essential to the success of a learning initiative, it is by no means the only factor. CLT should be considered alongside other theories of learning and instruction to ensure the best outcome for all learners in the longer term. 

What does this really mean? 

We’ve seen that the studies that led to the development of cognitive load theory were involved only with the teaching of complex mathematical and scientific problems. In fact, Sweller’s early papers noted the use of CLT’s principles only for that type of instruction. However, over time CLT has been expanded into a universal theory, without significant further research, into its application to the teaching of non-scientific, mathematical or processdriven problems. Several questions arise. How does the theory apply to these other educational topics, and is there any need to consider it at all? Similarly, there is a lack of research into long-term knowledge and skill gains through the application of CLT principles. This leads to questioning CLT’s practical application when alternative techniques may provide a more measurable gain.

Cognitive load theory has a strong and generally unchallenged influence and presence in the e-learning industry. Elements of professional practice (ie institutional principles often followed as part of an e-learning development team), as well as discussions within communities of practice, have been shaped by CLT. There is a broad base of literature that demonstrates the strong and lasting influence that CLT has on instructional designers and their communities of practice. Some related principles such as split-attention effect, dual modalities and chunking have gained traction within general e-learning practice, although they have not generally been critically examined by practitioners. Despite the prevalence of handbooks providing guidelines to instructional designers working in TEL, the guidance therein is not explicit enough to be of much use. For example, what does it mean to ‘chunk’ a course? What size should the chunks be, and how much is too much? As cognitive load is notoriously hard to measure and varies by learner, how can an instructional designer locate the ideal level of cognitive load? In environments where lessons are self-paced and self-directed – both qualities that ameliorate the effects of cognitive overload – it is not clear how useful the principles of CLT are. A review of industry magazines and white papers reveals that the importance of considering underload as well as overload has not been recognised within the e-learning community, even within more research-aware communities of practice. This is something that is worth exploring in greater detail within corporate e-learning design, where stakeholders often prefer all learners to follow the same journey (eg in mandatory financial compliance courses). Challenging this view and introducing the concept of cognitive underload may prove beneficial to a large number of learners – and, by association, to the organisation by which they are employed. 

Brünken, R., Plass, J. L., & Leutner, D. (2003). “Direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning.” Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 53-61. 
Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1991). “Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction.” Cognition and instruction, 8(4), 293-332. 
Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. 
Clark, R. C., Nguyen, F., & Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. 

Legal Bases of the Philippine Educational System

Here are the bases of the Philippine Educational System. The texts below are the articles,section, and the republic acts under the Philippine Constitution.


The Philippine Constitutions

1. 1935 CONST. Article XIV Section 5
2. 1973 CONST. Article XV Section 8 (1-8)
3. 1987 CONST. Article XIV Sections 1-5(5)


Article XIV Sections 1-5(5)

Section 1. The state shall protect and promote the right of all the citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
Section 2. The state shall:
  1. Establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society;
  2. Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age;
  3. Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged;
  4. Encourage non-formal, informal and indigenous learning system, as well as self- learning independent and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and
  5. Provide adult citizens, the disabled and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency and skills.
Section 3.
  1. All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula.
  2. They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote efficiency.
  3. At the option expressed in writing by the parent or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in the public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, additional cost to the Government.
Section 4.
  1. The state recognizes the complementary roles of the public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions.
  2. Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be allowed solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions. The control and administration of educational institutions shall vested in citizens of the Philippines. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
  3. All revenues and assets of non- stock, non- profit educational institutions used actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions subject to the limitations provided by law including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment.
  4. Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants endowments, donations or contributions used actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
Section 5.
  1. The State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs.
  2. Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
  3. Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable and equitable admission and academic requirements.
  4. The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non- teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State.
  5. The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.


This was an act providing for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of education. In accordance with Section 2, this act shall apply to and govern both formal and non- formal system in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational system.
As provided by this Act, the national development goals are as follows:
  1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress.
  2. To assure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth; and
  3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in changing world.
It is also stated in Section 3 that:
The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education, regardless of sex, age, creed socio- economic status, physical and mental conditions, racial or ethnic origin, political or other affiliation. The State shall therefore promote and maintain equality of access to education as well as the benefits of education by all its citizens.


  1. The right to receive competent instruction, relevant quality education.
  2. The right to freely choose their field of study subject to the existing curricula and continue their course up to graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency or violations of disciplinary regulations.
  3. The right to school guidance and counseling services.
  4. The right to access to his owns school records and the confidentiality of it.
  5. The right to issuance of official certificates, diplomas, transcript of records, grades, transfer credentials and similar document within thirty days from request.
  6. The right to publish a student newspaper and invite resource persons during symposia, assemblies and other activities.
  7. The right to free expression of opinions and suggestions and to effective channels of communication with appropriate academic and administrative bodies of the school or institutions.
  8. The right to form or establish, join and participate in organizations and societies recognized by the school…, or to form, join and maintain organizations and societies for purposes not contrary to law.
  9. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those approved by their organizations and societies.


  1. Free expression of opinions and suggestions.
  2. To be provided with free legal service by the appropriate government office in case of public school personnel and the school authorities concerned in case of private school personnel, when charged in administrative, civil and/or criminal proceedings, by parties other than the school authorities concerned, for actions committed directly in the lawful discharged of professional duties and/or in defense of school policies.
  3. Establish join, maintain labor organization of their choice to promote their welfare and defend their interest.
  4. To be free from involuntary contributions except those imposed by their own organizations.


  1. Right to be free compulsory assignment not related to their duties defined in their appointment or employment contracts unless compensated thereof. (additional compensation Sec. 14 R.A. 4670- at least 25% his regular remuneration)
  2. Right to intellectual property………
  3. Teachers are persons in authority when in lawful discharge of duties and responsibilities… shall therefore be accorded due respect and protection (Commonwealth Act No. 578)
  4. Teachers shall be given opportunity to choose career alternatives for advancements.


  1. School administrators shall be deemed persons in authority while in the lawful discharge of their duties and responsibilities…. Shall be accorded due respect and protection (Commonwealth Act No. 578)


  1. The right of their governing boards…….to adopt and enforce administrative or management systems.
  2. The right of institutions of higher learning to determine on academic grounds who shall be admitted to study, who may teach, and who shall be the subjects of the study and research.


  1. Voluntary Accreditation (Section 29)
  2. Teachers and Administrators obligations and qualification (Sections 176 and 17)
  3. Government Financial Assistance to Private Schools (Section 41)


1.  Republic Act No. 74

This law was enacted on January 21, 1901 by the Philippine Commission, and provided:
a. Establishment of the Department of Public Instruction headed by the General superintendent

b. The archipelago was divided into school divisions and districts for effective management of the school system.

c. English was made as medium of instruction in all levels of schooling

d. Optional religious instructions in all schools (Section 16)

e. Establishment of a Trade school in Manila (Philippine College of Arts and Trade- PCAT now known as Technological University of the Philippines), a school of Agriculture in Negros, a Normal school in Manila (Philippine Normal School) (Section 18)

• Philippine Normal School, however, was renamed Philippine Normal College (PNC) by virtue of Republic Act No. 416 on June 18, 1949. And on December 26, 1991, the PNC was converted to Philippine Normal University as provided by Republic Act No. 7168.

2. Republic Act No. 2706

This was known as the “Private School Law”, enacted on March 10, 1917 by the Philippine Legislature, which made obligatory the recognition and inspection of private schools and colleges by the Secretary of Public Instruction so as to maintain a standard of efficiency in all private schools and colleges in the country.

This law was amended by Commonwealth Act No. 180 passed on November 13, 1936 which provided that:

The Secretary of Public Instruction was vested with power to “supervise, inspect and regulate said schools and colleges in order to determine the efficiency of instruction given in the same.”

And all private schools come under the supervision and regulation of the Secretary of DPI, thus eliminating “diploma mills” and substandard schools.

3. Commonwealth Act No. 1 (Amended by R.A. 9163)

Known as the “National Defense Act” passed by the Philippine Assembly on December 21, 1935, which provided in Section 81 that:
“Preparatory Military training shall be given with the youth in the elementary grade school at the age of ten years and shall extend through the remainder of his schooling into college or post-secondary education.
By virtue of Presidential Decree 1706, issued by the late President Marcos on August 8, 1980, otherwise known as the “National Service Law”, Commonwealth Act No. 1 was amended, and required all citizens to render, civic welfare service, law enforcement service and military service.

4. Commonwealth Act No. 80

This law created the Office of Adult Education on October 26, 1936, so as to eliminate illiteracy and to give vocational and citizenship training to adult citizens of the country.

5. Commonwealth Act No. 578

Enacted on June 8, 1940, conferred the status of “persons in authority” upon the teachers, professors, and persons charged with the supervision of public or duly recognized private schools, colleges and universities.

This Act also provided a penalty of imprisonment ranging from six months and one day to six years and a fine ranging from 500 to 1, 000 pesos upon any person found guilty of assault upon those teaching personnel.

6. Commonwealth Act No. 586 (Repealed by R.A. 896)

This is known as Education Act of 1940. It was approved on August 7, 1940 by the Philippine Assembly.
The law provided for the following:
a. Reduction of seven- year elementary course to six- year elementary course.

b. Fixing the school entrance age to seven.

c. National support of elementary education.

d. Compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children who enroll in Grade I.

e. Introduction of double- single session- one class in the morning and another in the afternoon under one teacher to accommodate more children.

7. Commonwealth Act No. 589

This law, approved on August 19, 1940, established a school ritual in all public and private elementary and secondary schools in the Philippines.
The ritual consists of solemn and patriotic ceremonies that include the singing of the National Anthem and Patriotic Pledges.

8. Republic Act No. 139 (Repealed by R. A. 8047)

Enacted on June 14, 1947, and the Board of Textbooks. This law provided that all public schools must only use books that are approved by the Board for a period of six years from the date of their adoption.

The private schools may use books of their choice, provided the Board of Textbooks has no objections with those books.

9. Republic Act No. 896

Enacted on June 20, 1953 and known as the Elementary Education Act of 1953, it repealed Commonwealth Act 586 and provided for the following:
a. Restoration of Grade VII (but never implemented due to lack of funds)

b. Abolition of the double - single session and return to the former practice of only one

c. Class under one teacher in the primary and three teachers to two classes or five teachers to three classes in the intermediate level

d. Compulsory completion of the elementary grades

e. Compulsory enrollment of children in the public schools upon attaining seven years of age.

10. Republic Act No. 1124 (Repealed by R. A. 7722)

Approved on June 16, 1954, this law created the Board of National Education charged with the duty of formulating general educational policies and directing the educational interests of the nation.
However, this Board which was later renamed National Board of Education (P.D. No. 1), was abolished bu virtue of the Creation of the board of Higher Education as stipulated in Batas Pambansa Blg. 232. The Board’s function is now assumed by the commission on Higher Education or CHED by virtue of Republic Act No. 7722.

11. Republic Act No. 1265 (amended by R. A. 8491)

This law was approved on June 11, 1955, and provided that a daily flag ceremony shall be compulsory in all educational institutions. This includes the singing of the Philippine National Anthem.

12. Republic Act No. 1425

It was approved on June 12, 1956, it prescribed the inclusion in the curricula of all schools, both public and private, from elementary schools to the universities, the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal especially the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo.

13. Republic Act No. 4670

Known as the “Magna Carta for Public School Teachers”. This was approved on June 18, 1966 to promote and improve the social and economic status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their employment and career prospects.
It also provided the following:
  1. Recruitment qualifications for teachers
  2. Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers
  3. Teaching hours- 6 hours of classroom teaching (maximum load)
  4. Additional compensation- 25% of the regular remuneration
  5. Health and injury benefits (thru the GSIS)
  6. One year study leave (sabbatical leave) after seven years of continuous teaching, the teacher should receive 60% of the monthly salary.
  7. One range salary increase upon retirement (basis computing the retirement fee).
  8. Freedom to form organizations.

14. Republic Act No. 1079

Approved on June 15, 1959, it provided that Civil Service eligibility shall be permanent and shall have no time limit.

15. Republic Act No. 6655

Known as the “Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988”, it was approved on May 26, 1988 and provided for:
a. Free public secondary education to all qualified citizens and promote quality education at all level.

b. No tuition or other fees shall be collected except fees related to membership in the school community such I.D., student organization and publication.

c. Non- payment of these shall not hinder a student from enrollment or graduation.

d. Nationalization of all public secondary schools ( Section 7)

e. A student who fails in majority of his academic subjects for two consecutive years could no longer avail of their program.

Weiner's Attribution Theory

One of the most influential theoretical framework in social psychology is the Attribution Theory. It was developed by Bernard Weiner. Attribution theory assumes that people try to determine why people do what they do, that is, interpret causes to an event or behavior. 

A three-stage process underlies an attribution:

  1. Behavior must be observed/perceived
  2. Behavior must be determined to be intentional
  3. Behavior attributed to internal or external causes

Weiner’s attribution theory is mainly about achievement. According to him, the most important factors affecting attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. 

Attributions are classified along three causal dimensions:

  1. Focus of control (two poles: internal vs. external)
  2. Stability (do causes change over time or not?)
  3. Controllability (causes one can control such as skills vs. causes one cannot control such as luck, others’ actions, etc.)

When one succeeds, one attributes successes internally (“my own skill”). When a rival succeeds, one tends to credit external (e.g. luck). When one fails or makes mistakes, we will more likely use external attribution, attributing causes to situational factors rather than blaming ourselves. When others fail or make mistakes, internal attribution is often used, saying it is due to their internal personality factors.
A. Attribution is a three stage process:
1. Behavior is observed,
2. Behavior is determined to be deliberate, and
3. Behavior is attributed to internal or external causes.

B. Achievement can be attributed to:
1. Effort
2. Ability
3. Level of task difficulty, or
4. Luck

C. Causal dimensions of behavior are: 
1. Locus of control
2. Stability and 
3. Controllability

  1. Weiner, B. (1972). Attribution theory, achievement motivation, and the educational process. Review of educational research42(2), 203-215. 
  2. JL, "Attribution Theory (Weiner)," in Learning Theories, January 17, 2007, https://www.learning-theories.com/weiners-attribution-theory.html.

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