October 2017

Iba't Ibang Ayos ng Pangungusap

May dalawang ayos ang pangungusap: karaniwan o tuwid at di-karaniwan o baligtad na ayos.

1. Karaniwan o Tuwid na ayos ng pangungusap.
Ito ay ang ayos ng pangungusap na kadalasang ginagamit natin lalo na sa mga pasalitang Gawain.
Nauuna ang panaguri o ang bahagi nito sa simuno ng pangungusap.

Mga Halimbawa
a. Punung-puno ng iba’t ibang damdamin / ang musika.
b. Nangangahulugang Orihinal Pilipino Music / ang OPM.
c. Isang patunay / ito / ng pagiging malikhain ng mga Filipino.
Ang Punung-puno ng iba’t ibang damdamin, Nangangahulugang Orihinal Pilipino Music at isang patunay ay pawang mga panaguri. At sila ay matatagpuan bago ang mga simuno ng pangungusap.

2. Di-Karaniwan o Baligtad na ayos ng pangungusap
Ito ang ayos ng pangungusap na nauuna ang simuno sa panaguri ng pangungusap. Ang panandang "ay" ay kadalasang makikita sa mga pangungusap na nasa di karaniwang ayos.
Sa mga sumusunod na halimbawa, mapapansin na ang mga simuno na ang nauuna kaysa sa mga panaguri.

Mga Halimbawa
a. Ang musika / ay punung-puno ng damdamin.
b. Ang OPM / ay nangangahulugang Original Pilipino Music.
c. Ito / ay isang patunay ng pagiging malikhain ng mga Filipino.

Iba't Ibang Uri ng mga Pangungusap

May iba't ibang Uri ang mga Pangungusap. Ito ay ang mga sumusunod:

Ayon Sa Gamit

1. Mga pangungusap na eksistensyal - nagpapahayag ng pagkamayroon ng isa o higit pang tao, atbp. Pinangungunahan ito ng may o mayroon.
Halimbawa:
Mayroon daw ganito roon.

2. Mga pangungusap na pahanga – nagpapahayag ng damdaming paghanga.
Halimbawa:
Kayganda ng babaing iyun!

3. Mga sambitlang – tumutukoy sa mga iisahin o dadalawahing pantig na nagpapahayag ng matinding damdamin.
Halimbawa:
Aray!

4. Mga pangungusap na pamanahon – nagsasaad ng oras o uri ng panahon.
Halimbawa:
Maaga pa.

5. Mga pormularyong panlipunan – mga pagbati, pagbibigay-galang, atbp. na nakagawian na sa lipunang Pilipino.
Halimbawa:
Magandang umaga po.

Ayon SaTungkulin

Ang pangungusap ay may apat na uri ayon tungkulin, ito ay pasalaysay, patanong, pautos at padamdam.

1. Ang paturol na pangungusap ay tinatawag ding pasalaysay. Ito’y nagsasalaysay ng isang katotohanan o pangyayari. Ito ay binabantasan ng tuldok.
Halimbawa:
Si Jose Rizal ay kinikilalang bayani ng ating lahi.
Magkikita-kita ang aming pamilya sa pagdating ni Rene.

2. Ang pangungusap na patanong ay nagpapahayag ng pagtatanong o pag-uusisa. Ito’y gumagamit ng tandang pananong (?).
Halimbawa:
Tutuloy ba kayo kina Tess at Lito pagdating sa New York?
Sasama na ba ang mga bata sa pamamasyal?

Anyo ng Patanong
Patanong na masasagot ng OO o Hindi
Halimbawa:
Naglinis ka na ba ng bahay?

Pangungusap na Patanggi ang Tanong
Halimbawa:
Hindi ka ba papasok?

Gumagamit ng Panghalip na Pananong
Ang mga panghalip ay kinabibilangan ng mga salitang: ano, alin, sino, saan at iba pa.
Halimbawa:
Ano ang iyong ginagawa kanina?

Nasa Kabalikang Anyo ng Tanong
Halimbawa:
Tayo ba ay aalis na?
Tanong na may Karugtong o Pabuntot
Halimbawa:
Dumaan ka na dito, hindi ba?

3. Ang pautos ay nagpapahayag ng obligasyong dapat tuparin, samantalang ang pakiusap ay nagpapahayag ng pag-utos sa magalang na pamamaraan. Nagtatapos ito sa tuldok.

Halimbawa:
Sagutin mo agad ang liham ni Joy.
Pakibigay mo naman ito sa iyong guro.

Anyo ng Pautos
Pautos na Pananggi – Pinangungunahan ng salitang "huwag".
Halimbawa:
Huwag kang lalabas ng bahay.
Pautos na Panag-ayon – Ito ang paksa ng pangungusap ay nasa ikalawang panauhan
at may pandiwang nasa anyong pawatas.
Halimbawa:
Ipagluto mo si Anna ng adobo.

4. Padamdam - Ito ay nagsasabi ng matinding damdamin gaya ng tuwa, lungkot, pagkagulat, paghanga, panghihinayang at iba pa. Karaniwang nagtatapos ito sa tandang panamdam(!). Hala! Aba! Ha! Hoy! Gising! Naku!
Halimbawa:
Naku! Binasag mo pala, ang mamahaling plorera.
Kay ganda ng bansang Pilipinas!

Ayon Sa Kayarian

Ang pangungusap ay may apat na kayarian: payak, tambalan, hugnay at langkapan.
1. Ang payak na pangungusap ay nagpapahayag ng iisang kaisipan. Maaaring nagtataglay ng payak o tambalang simuno at panaguri.
May apat itong kayarian:
a. payak na simuno at payak na panaguri
b. payak na simuno at tambalang panaguri
c. tambalang simuno at payak na panaguri
d. tambalang simuno at tambalang panaguri.
Mga halimbawa:
a. Ang pamahalaan ay masigasig sa mabilisang pagsugpo ng kriminalidad sa bansa.
b. Ang mga lalaki at babae ay naghahanda ng palatuntunan para sa darating na pista.
c. Ang aming pangkat ay naglinis ng mga kalye at nagpinta ng mga pader sa paaralan.
d. Ang mga guro at mag-aaral ay aawit at sasayaw para sa pagdiriwang ng Buwan ng Wika.

2. Ang tambalang pangungusap ay binubuo ng dalawa o higit pang sugnay na makapag-iisa:
Halimbawa:
a. Nagtatag ng isang samahan sina Arnel at agad silang umisip ng magandang proyekto para
sa mga kabataan ng kanilang pook.
b. Maraming balak silang gawin sa Linggo: magpapamigay sila ng pagkain sa mga batang
lansangan, magpapadala sila nga mga damit sa mga batang ulila saka maghahandog
sila ng palatuntunan para sa mga maysakit sa gabi.

3. Ang hugnayang pangungusap ay binubuo ng isang sugnay na makapag-iisa at isa o dalawang sugnay na di-makapag-iisa.
Halimbawa:
a. Gaganda ang iyong buhay kung susunod ka sa mga pangaral ng inyong magulang.
b. Ang batang na putol ang mga kamay ay mahusay gumuhit.

4. Ang langkapang pangungusap ay binubuo ng dalawa o mahigit pang sugnay na makapag-iisa at dalawa o mahigit pang sugnay na di-makapag-iisa.
Halimbawa:
a. Ang buhay sa mundo ay pansamantala lamang kaya't dapat na tayo ay magpakabuti upang
makamit ang kaligayahan sa kabilang buhay.
b. Nahuli na ang mga masasamang-loob kaya't payapa na kaming nakatutulog sa gabi, kasi
sila lamang ang gumugulo sa amin.
c. Ang mga bayani natin ay namuhunan ng dugo upang makamtan ang kalayaan nang ang
bayan ay matahimik at lumigaya.

Mga Anyo at Uri ng Panitikan

Ano ang Panitikan?

Ang panitikan ay nagsasabi o nagpapahayag ng mga kaisipan, mga damdamin, mga karanasan, hangarin at diwa ng mga tao. At ito rin ang pinakapayak na paglalarawan lalo na sa pagsulat ng tuwiran o tuluyan at patula.
Ang salitang panitikan ay nanggaling sa salitang "pang-titik-an" na kung saan ang unlaping "pang" ay ginamit at hulaping "an". At sa salitang "titik" naman ay nangunguhulugang literatura, na ang literatura ay galing sa Latin na littera na nangunguhulugang titik.
Nagsasalaysay din ito sa pamahalaan, lipunan at mga pananampatalaya at mga karanasang may kaugnay ng iba't ibang klase ng damdamin. Ang halimbawa nito ay ang pag-ibig, kaligayahan, kalungkutan, pag-asa, pagkapoot, paghihiganti, pagkasuklam, sindak at pangamba.

Mga uri ng Panitikan

Sa pinakapayak na paghahati, dalawa ang uri ng panitikan: ang mga kathang-isip(Ingles: fiction) at ang mga hindi kathang-isip (Ingles: non-fiction) na mga sulatin at babasahin. Ginagamit ng mga manunulat ang kanilang imahinasyon para sa pagsulat ng mga akdang bungang-isip lamang. Umiimbento sila ng mga kathang-isip na mga tauhan, pangyayari, sakuna, at pook na pinangyarihan ng kuwento para sa kanilang mga prosang katulad ng mga nobela at maikling kuwento
Para sa pangalawang uri ng panitikan, bumabatay ang may-akda sa mga tunay na balita at iba pang kaganapan, ayon sa kaniyang mga kaalaman hinggil sa paksa. Pinipilit dito ng manunulat na maging tumpak sa mga detalye ng mga pangyayari. Hindi gawa-gawa lamang ang nakakaingganyong kuwento. Kabilang sa mga hindi-bungang-isip na mga sulatin at babasahin ang mga talambuhay, awtobiyograpiya, talaarawan, sanaysay, at mga akdang pang-kasaysayan.


Anyo ng Panitikan

May dalawang pangunahing anyo ang panitikan, ito ang tuluyan at patula. Ang tuluyan o prosa na sa salitang Ingles ay prose. Ito ay maluwang na pagsasama-sama ng mga salita sa loob ng pangungusap. Ito ay nasusulat sa karaniwang takbo ng pangungusap o pagpapahayag.
Ang patula o panulaan na tawag sa salitang Ingles ay poetry. Ito ay pagbubuo ng pangungusap sa pamamagitan ng salitang binibilang na pantig sa taludtod na pinagtugma-tugma, at nagpapahayag din ng mga salitang binibilang ang mga pantig at pagtutugma-tugma ng mga dulo ng mga taludtod sa isang saknong.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses

The following is the List of Greek Gods and Goddesses and their brief description.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - A

  • Achelois - One of the moon goddesses.
  • Achelous - The patron god of the Achelous river.
  • Aeolus - (a.k.a. Aeolos, Aiolos, Aiolus, Eolus) God of air and the winds.
  • Aether - (a.k.a. Aither, Akmon, Ether) God of light and the atmosphere.
  • Alastor - God of family feuds.
  • Alcyone - One of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione.
  • Alectrona - Early Greek goddess of the sun.
  • Amphitrite - (a.k.a. Salacia) The wife of Poseidon and a Nereid.
  • Antheia - Goddess of gardens, flowers, swamps, and marshes.
  • Aphaea - (a.k.a. Aphaia) A Greek goddess who was worshipped exclusively at a single sanctuary on the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.
  • Aphrodite - (a.k.a. Anadyomene, Turan, Venus) Goddess of love and beauty.
  • Apollo - (a.k.a. Apollon, Apulu, Phoebus) God of the sun, music, healing, and herding.
  • Ares - (a.k.a. Enyalius, Mars, Aries) God of chaotic war.
  • Aristaeus - (a.k.a. Aristaios) Patron god of animal husbandry, bee-keeping, and fruit trees.
  • Artemis - (a.k.a. Agrotora, Amarynthia, Cynthia, Kourotrophos, Locheia, Orthia, Phoebe, Potnia Theron) Goddess of the moon, hunting, and nursing.
  • Asclepius - (a.k.a. Aesculapius, Asklepios) God of health and medicine.
  • Astraea - The Star Maiden - a goddess of justice, included in Virgo and Libra mythologies.
  • Até - Goddess of mischief.
  • Athena - (a.k.a. Asana, Athene, Minerva, Menerva) Goddess of wisdom, poetry, art, and the strategic side of war.
  • Atlas - The Primordial Titan who carried the weight of the heavens on his back.
  • Atropos - (a.k.a. Aisa, Morta) One of The Fates - She cut the thread of life and chose the manner of a persons death.
  • Attis - The (minor) god of rebirth.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - B

  • Bia - The goddess of force.
  • Boreas - (a.k.a. Aquilo, Aquilon) The North Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
  • Brizo - Protector of Mariners.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - C

  • Caerus - (a.k.a. Kairos, Occasio, Tempus) The (minor) god of luck and opportunity.
  • Calliope - One of the Muses. Represented epic poetry.
  • Calypso - (a.k.a. Kalypso) The sea nymph who held Odysseus prisoner for seven years.
  • Castor - (a.k.a. Castore, Kastor) One of the twins who represent Gemini.
  • Celaeno - The name of a wife of Poseidon.
  • Cerus - The wild bull tamed by Persephone, made into the Taurus constellation.
  • Ceto - (a.k.a. Keto) a sea monster goddess who was also the mother of other sea monsters.
  • Chaos - (a.k.a. Khaos) The nothingness that all else sprung from.
  • Charon - (a.k.a. Charun) The Ferryman of Hades. He had to be paid to help one cross the river Styx.
  • Chronos - (a.k.a. Chronus, Khronos) God of time.
  • Circe - (a.k.a. Kirke) A goddess who transformed her enemies into beasts.
  • Clio - One of the Muses. She represented History.
  • Clotho - (a.k.a. Nona) One of the Fates - Spun the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle.
  • Crios - The crab who protected the sea nymphs, made into the Cancer constellation.
  • Cronus - (a.k.a. Cronos, Kronos, Saturn) God of agriculture, father of the Titans.
  • Cybele - (a.k.a. Agdistis, Magna Mater, Meter, Meter Oreie) Goddess of caverns, mountains, nature and wild animals.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - D

  • Demeter - (a.k.a. Ceres, Demetra, Tvath) Goddess of the harvest.
  • Dinlas - Guardian of the ancient city of Lamark, where wounded heroes could heal after battle.
  • Dionysus - (a.k.a. Bacchus, Dionysos, Liber) God of wine and pleasure.
  • Doris - A Sea Nymph, mother of the Nereids.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - E

  • Eileithyia - (a.k.a. Eileithyiai, Eilithia, Eilythia, Eleuthia, Ilithia, Ilithyia, Lucina) Goddess of childbirth.
  • Eireisone - The deity who embodied the sacred ceremonial olive branch.
  • Electra - (a.k.a. Atlantis) One of the seven Pleiades.
  • Elpis - (a.k.a. Spes) The spirit of Hope.
  • Enyo - (a.k.a. Bellona) A (minor) goddess of war, connected to Eris.
  • Eos - (a.k.a. Aurora, Eosphorus, Mater Matuta, Thesan) Goddess of the Dawn.
  • Erato - One of the Muses - represents Lyrics/Love Poetry.
  • Erebus - (a.k.a. Erebos) God of darkness.
  • Eris - (a.k.a. Discordia) Goddess of strife, connected to Enyo.
  • Eros - (a.k.a. Amor, Cupid, Eleutherios) God of love, procreation and sexual desire.
  • Eurus - (a.k.a. Euros, Vulturnus) The East Wind - One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
  • Euterpe - One of the Muses - represents Music/Lyrics/Poetry.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - G

  • Gaia - (a.k.a. Celu, Gaea, Terra) Goddess of the Earth, also known as Mother Earth.
  • Glaucus - (a.k.a. Glacus, Glaukos) A fisherman turned immortal, turned Argonaut, turned a god of the sea.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - H

  • Hades - (a.k.a. Aita, Dis Pater, Haidou, Orcus, Plouton, Pluto) God of the Dead, King of the Underworld.
  • Harmonia - (a.k.a. Concordia) Goddess of Harmony and Concord.
  • Hebe - (a.k.a. Juventas) Goddess of youth.
  • Hecate - (a.k.a. Hekat, Hekate, Trivia) Goddess of magic, witchcraft, ghosts, and the undead.
  • Helios - (a.k.a. Sol) God of the Sun.
  • Hemera - (a.k.a. Amar, Dies, Hemere) Goddess of daylight.
  • Hephaestus - (a.k.a. Hephaistos, Vulcan, Sethlans, Mulciber) God of fire and blacksmithing who created weapons for the gods.
  • Hera - (a.k.a. Juno, Uni) Goddess of goddesses, women, and marriage and wife of Zeus.
  • Heracles - (a.k.a. Herakles, Hercules, Hercle) An immortal hero of many Greek legends, the strongest man on Earth.
  • Hermes - (a.k.a. Pyschopompus, Mercury, Turms) God of commerce and travel, and messenger of the gods.
  • Hesperus - (a.k.a. Hesperos, Vesper) The Evening Star.
  • Hestia - (a.k.a. Vesta) Greek goddess of the home and fertility. One of the Hesperides.
  • Hygea - (a.k.a. Hygieia, Salus) Goddess of cleanliness and hygeine.
  • Hymenaios - (a.k.a. Hymenaeus, Hymen) God of weddings.
  • Hypnos - (a.k.a. Somnus) God of sleep.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - I-L

  • Iris - Goddess of rainbows.
  • Khione - The goddess of snow and daughter of the North Wind (Boreas)
  • Kotys - (a.k.a. Cotys, Cottyto, Cottytus) A Dionysian goddess whose celebrations were wild and liscivious.
  • Kratos - A god of strength and power.
  • Lacheses - (a.k.a. Decima) One of the Fates. Measured the thread of life with her rod.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - M

  • Maia - (a.k.a. Mya, Fauna, Maia Maiestas, Bono Dea) One of the seven Pleiades, Goddess of fields.
  • Mania - (a.k.a. Mania, Manea) Goddess of insanity and the dead.
  • Melpomene - One of the Muses - represented Tragedy.
  • Merope - One of the seven Pleiades, married to king Sisyphos.
  • Metis - Titan goddess of wisdom.
  • Momus - (a.k.a. Momos) God of satire, writers, and poets.
  • Morpheus - God of dreams and sleep.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - N-O

  • Nemesis - (a.k.a. Rhamnousia, Invidia) Goddess of retribution (vengeance).
  • Nereus - (a.k.a. Phorcys, Phorkys) Titan God who Fathered the Nereids. God of the Sea before Poseidon.
  • Nike - (a.k.a. Victoria, Nice) Goddess of victory.
  • Notus - (a.k.a. Auster) The South Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
  • Nyx - (a.k.a. Nox) Goddess of night.
  • Oceanus - Titan god of the ocean.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - P

  • Pallas - A giant who was one of the ancient Titan gods of war.
  • Pan - (a.k.a. Faunus, Inuus) God of woods, fields, and flocks. Also a Satyr.
  • Peitha - (a.k.a. Peitho, Suadela) Goddess of persuasion.
  • Persephone - (a.k.a. Persephassa, Persipina, Persipnei, Persephatta, Proserpina, Kore, Kora, Libera) Goddess of the Spring who lives off-season in the Underworld.
  • Pheme - (a.k.a. Fama) Goddess of fame and gossip.
  • Phosphorus - (a.k.a. Phosphor, Lucifer) The Morning Star.
  • Plutus - God of wealth.
  • Pollux - (a.k.a. Polydeuces) One of the twins who represent Gemini.
  • Polyhymnia - One of the Muses - represents sacred poetry and geometry.
  • Pontus - (a.k.a. Pontos) Ancient god of the deep sea.
  • Poseidon - (a.k.a. Neptune, Nethuns, Neptunus) God of the sea and earthquakes.
  • Priapus - (a.k.a. Priapus, Mutinus, Mutunus) A (minor) god of gardens and fertility, best known for having an enormous penis.
  • Pricus - The immortal father of sea-goats, made into the Capricorn constellation.
  • Proteus - An early sea god before Poseidon.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - R-S

  • Rhea - (a.k.a. Cybele) Goddess of nature.
  • Selene - (a.k.a. Luna) Goddess of the Moon and the 'mother' of vampires.
  • Sterope - (a.k.a. Asterope) One of the seven Pleiades, who bore a child of Ares.
  • Styx - A Naiad who was the first to aid Zeus in the Titan war. (Not to be confused with the river Styx).

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - T

  • Tartarus - (a.k.a. Tartaros, Tartarizo) God of the depths of the Underworld - a great storm pit - and the father of Typhon.
  • Taygete - (a.k.a. Taygeti, Taigeti) One of the seven Pleiades, a mountain nymph.
  • Terpsichore - One of the Muses - represented Dancing.
  • Thalia - One of the Muses - represented Comedy.
  • Thanatos - (a.k.a. Mors) God of death.
  • Themis - Ancient goddess of divine order, law, and custom.
  • Thetis - Leader of the Nereids, a shapeshifter, and a prophet.
  • Triton - Trumpeter of the sea and messenger of the deep.
  • Tyche - (a.k.a. Fortuna, Nortia) Goddess of fortune and prosperity.
  • Typhon - (a.k.a. Typhaon, Typhoeus, Typhus) God of monsters, storms, and volcanoes. Challenged Zeus for control of Mount Olympus.

List of Greek Gods and Goddesses - U-Z

  • Urania - One of the Muses - represented Astronomy and Astrology.
  • Uranus - (a.k.a. Ouranos, Caelus) God of the sky and the heavens. Father of the Titans.
  • Zelus - The god of zeal, rivalry, and jealousy.
  • Zephyrus - (a.k.a. Zephyros, Favonius, Zephyr) The West Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
  • Zeus - (a.k.a. Dias, Jupiter, Tinia, Jove, Jovis Pater) Leader of the Olympic gods, and god of lightning, thunder, and the heavens.

List of Ancient Egyptian God and Goddesses

Here is the List of Ancient Egyptian God and Goddesses and their brief description.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - A

  • Aah - (a.k.a. Aa, Ah) The god of the 360 day Egyptian calendar. He famously lost the other 5 days to Thoth in a game of dice.
  • Abtu - A fish deity, paired with Anet. Together they swim in front of Ra's boat to warn and protect him from danger.
  • Ahti - With the body of a hippo and the head of a wasp, this goddess was considered spiteful and chaotic and was rarely worshipped.
  • Aken - The ferryman who takes dead souls to the afterlife. Is often asleep, which means souls have to wake him for passage.
  • Aker - An earth god whose primary function is to protect the gateway into and out of the Underworld.
  • Amathaunta - Brought to Egypt from Sumerian myth, little is known of this goddess other than that she was associated with the sea.
  • Amaunet - The goddess of the North Wind in Lower Egypt. Also one of the 8 original gods, the Ogdoad.
  • Amenhotep - A pharoah who constructed so many great buildings he became the god of architecture and construction.
  • Ament - (a.k.a. Amentet, Amentit) The hostess of the Underworld. Greets new souls brought in by her husband Aken.
  • Ammit - (a.k.a. Ammam, Amemait, Ammut, Ahemait) A goddess of judgement. If one's soul is judged unworthy at the end of their life, this hippo/lion/crocodile goddess swallows it.
  • Amn - A greeter goddess of the Underworld. Possibly the same deity as Ament, except she is invisible.
  • Amsit - (a.k.a. Imset, Imsety) One of the 4 sons of Horus who protected the mummified remains of the dead. Amsit protected jars of livers.
  • Amun - (a.k.a. Amon, Ammon, Amen) One of the 8 Ogdoads (original gods) of Egypt who through time evolved to become the chief deity of all Egyptian mythology.
  • Amun Ra - (a.k.a. Amun Re, Amen Ra, Amen Re, Amon Ra, Amon Re, Ammon Ra, Ammon Re) The joining of Amun and Ra into one super-deity which occurred later in Egyptian mythology.
  • Anat - A war goddess brought to Egypt from Mesopotamia. Was also romantically linked to Set.
  • Andjety - (a.k.a. Anedjti, Anezti) The god of rebirth in the Underworld. Allowed souls to remain alive after their bodies died. Husband of Anit.
  • Anet - A fish deity, paired with Abtu. Together they swim in front of Ra's boat to warn and protect him from danger.
  • Anhur - (a.k.a. Inher, Onuris) A god of creativity who is best known for slaying the enemies of the Egyptian people.
  • Anit - Goddess of fertility, sex, war, and hunting. Originally from Canaan but also worshipped by early Hebrews.
  • Ankhet - (a.k.a. Ankt, Anuket) Goddess of the Nile, specifically flooding, fertility, and fertilization.
  • Anouke - (a.k.a. Anuke) An ancient Egyptian war goddess who was always shown with a bow and arrow.
  • Anti - An ancient god who became the patron god of ferrymen and travellers by sea.
  • Anubis - (a.k.a. Anpu, Imeut, Ienpw, Inpu, Lenpw, Yinepu) The jackal-headed god of Death in early Egyptian mythology. He holds the scales that weigh the souls of the dead.
  • Apedemak - (a.k.a. Apademak) A little known god of the Meroitic people. He had the head of a lion and was considered a warrior god.
  • Apep - (a.k.a. Aapep, Apepi, Apophis) A god of darkness in the form of a serpent. Would try to swallow sunlight and was the reason for eclipses.
  • Apis - (a.k.a. Hap, Haap, Hep, Hepi) A holy bull god in Memphis. Any bulls born all black with a white triangle on the forehead were considered him reborn.
  • Arensnuphis - (a.k.a. Arsnuphis, Harensnuphis, Ari-Hes-Nefer) A lion headed god of Nubia who wore a crown of feathers. His mythological function is unknown.
  • Aten - (a.k.a. Aten-Ra, Aten-Re, Aton, Aton-Ra, Aton-Re) A little known sun god until Pharoah Amenhotep IV decreed him to be the ONLY god. Also known as the "sun disc".
  • Atum - (a.k.a. Atum-Ra, Atum-Re, Tem, Tum, Temu) The creator of the world who began life as a single hill emerging from the water. Created the other gods from his semen.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - B

  • Ba - A fertility god with a ram's head. Women hoping to get pregnant would invoke his name.
  • Ba-Pef - A minor Egyptian god whose name means "That Soul". Little is known except that he is often sad and woeful.
  • Babi - (a.k.a. Bab, Babay) A baboon demon who was considered a god of sexual prowess in the underworld. Rarely wore pants.
  • Banebdjetet - (a.k.a. Banebtetet, Banebdjedet, Banebdedet, Ba-Neb-Tetet, Baneb-Djedet, Banephthysdjedet) An Egyptian ram god from Mendes. Intervened in the great war between Horus and Seth. Possibly the same deity as Ba.
  • Bast - (a.k.a. Bastet, Ubastet, Ailuros) A famous cat-headed goddess who protected Egyptians from foreign attacks as well as fires. Later became known for cat-like sensuality.
  • Bat - (a.k.a. Bata) A fertility goddess in the form of a cow. Was known in Upper Egypt.
  • Benu - A sun god in the form of a golden bird. Is connected to Atum, the creator of the world.
  • Bes - (a.k.a. Bisu) An ugly, scary looking dwarf god who uses his appearance to ward off evil spirits and vibrations. Commonly invoked for protection.
  • Beset - Beset is the female version of Bes. Most likely a later spelling of the same name.
  • Buto - A cobra goddess who protected the pharaohs. Pharaohs would wear a cobra on their crown to invoke her protection.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - C

  • Chenti-Cheti - A minor Egyptian god who took the form of a crocodile, then later a falcon.
  • Chenti-Irti - A minor Egyptian god of law and order who took the form of a falcon. Possibly Horus in disguise.
  • Cherti - (a.k.a. Kherty) Another ferryman of the dead, he took the form of a ram or a man with a ram's head.
  • Chontamenti - (a.k.a. Chonti-Amentiu,Khentamenti) A death god in Western Egypt. Took the form of a dog with horns and lived in the Underworld.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - D

  • Dedun - (a.k.a. Dedwen) God of wealth symbolized by his association with then-precious incense.
  • Dua - The god of toilets and sanitation.
  • Duamutef - One of the four sons of Horus who protected embalmed stomachs of mummified corpses. Has a jackal's head.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - E

  • Ehi - (a.k.a. Ihu) The Egyptian god of the sistrum, a rattle used in sacred ceremonies.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - G

  • Geb - (a.k.a. Keb, Seb, Qeb) God of the Earth. Represented by the goose. His laughter caused earthquakes. His twin sister/consort was Nut, the sky goddess.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - H

  • Ha - The god of deserts west of Egypt. Had a bull's tail.
  • Hah - (a.k.a. Heh, Huh, Hu) God of infinity and formlessness. One of the first Egyptian gods who supports the universe. He himself is the symbol for the number 1,000,000.
  • Hapi - God of the Nile who appears as a man but pregnant looking, representing his dedication to the fertility provided by the Nile.
  • Hapy - One of the four sons of Horus who protected embalmed lungs of mummified corpses. Has a baboon's head.
  • Har-Nedj-Hef - An incarnation of the god Horus, this one dedicated to protecting Osiris in the Underworld.
  • Har-Pa-Khered - (a.k.a. Harpakhered, Har-Pa-Khruti, Harpakhruti) An incarnation of the god Horus, this one as a child sitting on his mother's lap. Was invoked to ward off evil creatures.
  • Harmakhis - (a.k.a. Harmatchis) An incarnation of the god Horus, this one appearing as the Sphinx of Giza and representing ressurection identified by the setting and rising sun.
  • Haroeris - (a.k.a. Har-Wer) An ancient incarnation of Horus, considered "Horus the Elder", a combination of falcon-headed Horus and Wer, an ancient creation god.
  • Hat-Mehit - (a.k.a. Hatmehit, Hatmehyt, Het-Mehit, Hetmehit) A fish goddess primarily worshipped in the Nile Delta. Her husband was Banebdjetet.
  • Hathor - (a.k.a. Heret) The goddess of Happiness, Frolicing, and Cavorting. Was also a protector of women and had a complex history.
  • Hauhet - (a.k.a. Hehet) Goddess of infinity and formlessness. The female counterpart to Hah.
  • Hedetet - A little known goddess who took the form of a scorpion.
  • Heket - (a.k.a. Hek, Hektet, Heqat, Heget) An Egyptian goddess of childbirth. Was depicted on temple walls as a woman with a frogs head and on amulets as a frog.
  • Hemen - A little known Egyptian falcon god.
  • Hemsut - (a.k.a. Hemuset) A goddess of fate.
  • Henet - A pelican headed goddess who seemed to be linked to one's passing into the afterlife.
  • Heptet - The goddess who protected Osiris's body and soul in the afterlife. Had the head of a snake and held twin daggers.
  • Herishep - (a.k.a. Herishef) A minor god in Northern Egypt, he had a ram's head and horns and was associated with fertility.
  • Heru-Behudti - Horus in the form of the scorching sun.
  • Hez-Ur - A little known Egyptian baboon god.
  • Heka - (a.k.a. Hike) God of magic and magical rituals. Son of the Egyptian creator god Atum.
  • Horus - The great Egyptian sky god whose eyes were the sun and the moon. Son of Isis and Osiris and nephew of Seth.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - I

  • Iat - A minor goddess of milk, childbirth, and nursing.
  • Ihy - God of music and dancing.
  • Imentet - An ancient Egyptian goddess who welcomed the deceased to the afterlife in Western Egypt.
  • Imhotep - (a.k.a. Imhetep, Immutef, Iunmutef) A mortal commoner whose brilliance in sculpture, architecture, and mathematics helped him ascend to the rank of a god.
  • Imiut - An ancient Egyptian god whose name means "He who is in his wrappings". May have been connected with the Underworld.
  • Iptet - A goddess of childbirth who took on the form of a hippopotamus.
  • Isis - (a.k.a. Aset) An extremely popular goddess, originally protected sailors but then became the Great Mother Goddess after giving birth to Horus.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - J

  • Jah - (a.k.a. Joh) A god of the moon.
  • Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - K
  • Kebechet - (a.k.a. Khebhut, Kabehchet) The goddess of embalming fluid used in mummification.
  • Kebechsenef - One of the four sons of Horus. He would protect the intenstinal remains of the mummified.
  • Kek - (a.k.a. Kuk, Keket, Keku, Kauket) The great unknown darkness in Egyptian mythology. Took male form as a frog-man and female form as a snake-woman.
  • Kemur - (a.k.a. Kemwer) An oracular deity taking the form of a pure black bull in the Mnevis region.
  • Ken - An egyptian love goddess.
  • Khepri - (a.k.a. Kehperi, Kheper, Kehpera, Chepri) The god of ressurection. Symbolized by the scarab (dung beetle), which became a representation of ressurection itself.
  • Khnum - (a.k.a. Knum, Khnemu, Kemu, Knouphis, Chnum, Chnemu, Chnoumis, Chnuphis) He is where babies come from according to the ancient Egyptians. He would make a baby's body out of clay then sneak into a woman's home and impregnate her with it.
  • Khons - (a.k.a. Khonsu, Khensu, Chons) A brilliant young moon god who also was a god of time. Also an exorcist of sorts.
  • Kneph - (a.k.a. Cneph) One of the first Egyptian gods who is known to be connected to the creation of the universe.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - M

  • Maat - (a.k.a. Ma'at) Goddess of Justice and Law.
  • Mafdet - (a.k.a. Maftet) Egyptian goddess of Protection.
  • Mahes - (a.k.a. Maahes) A lion-headed god of war. Possibly the Eastern Egyptian version of Apedemak.
  • Mehen - A large snake god who protectively coils around Ra during the night.
  • Mehurt - (a.k.a. Mehturt, Mehet-Uret, Mehet-Weret) The mother of the sky in Egyptian mythology. Takes form as a cow and represents the flowing water of life.
  • Menhit - (a.k.a. Menchit) Warrior goddess with the head of a lion and a lust for war. The female version of Mahes.
  • Monthu - (a.k.a. Mentu, Menthu, Monto, Month) A popular war god in Ancient Egypt. Mostly seen as a falcon-headed man, but occassionally as a white bull with a black face.
  • Meret - (a.k.a. Mert) Goddess of Rejoicing. Presided over song and dance and was often considered the wife of Hapy.
  • Meretseger - (a.k.a. Mertseger) Cobra-headed goddess who was both dangerous and merciful. She protected the Valley of the Kings and laid waste to graverobbers.
  • Meskhenet - (a.k.a. Meskhent) An important goddess of childbirth who breathed the soul into each child as they were born.
  • Min - The god of male fertility and sexual prowess and potency, once called the Chief of Heaven.
  • Mnewer - (a.k.a. Mnevis, Mer-Wer) A sacred black bull worshipped in Heliopolis. Was considered an aspect of sun god Atum-Ra and represented virility.
  • Mut - Mother goddess of nurturing and protecting, she was depicted as a vulture - whoichancient Egyptians believed to be excellent parents.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - N

  • Nephthys - (a.k.a. Neb Hut, Nebthet) Could be called the "goddess of sympathy". Comforts both the living and dead after a person has died. Sister of Isis and Osiris.
  • Nef - (a.k.a. Nehab) A serpent god.
  • Nefertem - (a.k.a. Nefer Tem, Nefer Temu, Nefertum) Was born from a blue lotus flower at the beginning of creation. Created mankind from his tears.
  • Nehebkau - (a.k.a. Nehebkhau, Nehebu Kau) Protects against poisonous snake bites and scorpion stings. Also binds the souls (Ba and Ka) after death.
  • Neith - (a.k.a. Neit) A goddess of war, hunting, and wisdom. Was very wise and was said to be the mother of Ra.
  • Nekhbet - (a.k.a. Nekhabed) Patron goddess of the city of Nekheb, and seen as an "adoptive mother" in Egyptian myth. Depicted as a white vulture.
  • Neper - (a.k.a. Nepra, Nepri) A god of grain and corn. Paired with the goddess Nepit.
  • Nepit - A goddess of grain and corn. Paired with the god Neper.
  • Nun - (a.k.a. Nu) God of primeival and stormy waters. Was one of the 8 Ogdoad (early gods) of Hermopolis. His wife is Nunet.
  • Nunet - (a.k.a. Naunet) Goddess of the skies above stormy waters. Was one of the 8 Ogdoad (early gods) of Hermopolis. Her husband is Nun.
  • Nut - (a.k.a. Nuit, Newet) Goddess of the sky. One of the oldest and most prominent goddesses. Portrayed as a nude woman covered in stars.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - O

  • Osiris - (a.k.a. Ned Er Tcher, Usire) Former god of vegetation and fertility until he was killed by his brother and ressurrected by his sister. Now the Judge of the Dead.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - P

  • Petbe - The Egyptian god of revenge.
  • Ptah - (a.k.a. Ptha) The crafting god who covered all sorts of industry - masonry, craftsmanship, carpentry, sculpture, metalworking, and shipbuilding.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - Q

  • Qetesh - (a.k.a. Qadeshet, Qadesh, Qudshu) A goddess of fertility, representing sacred ecstasy and sexual pleasure.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - R

  • Ra - (a.k.a. Re) The great sun god. Often considered the most important deity in Egyptian mythology.
  • Renenet - (a.k.a. Ernutet, Renenutet) Goddess of Prosperity. An important cobra-headed goddess associated with motherhood, the harvest, and the magical properties of linen for mumification.
  • Renpet - Goddess of youth and the spring season.
  • Reshep - (a.k.a. Reshpu) Originally known by the Syrians as Ramman, this storm god became an Egyptian war god. Associated with Min and Qadesh.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - S

  • Sahu - The Egyptian incarnation of the constellation Orion. A star god associated with the change between night and day.
  • Satet - (a.k.a. Satis, Satjit, Sati, Sates) The Egyptian goddess associated with flooding the Nile River - the key source of life in ancient Egypt.
  • Sebek - (a.k.a. Sobek, Sochet, Sobk, Sobki, Suchos) The deification of the power of the Egyptian pharoahs. He was associated with the Nile river and had the head of a crocodile.
  • Seker - (a.k.a. Sokar, Sokaris, Soker) Falcon god of death and ressurection. Shown as a mummified falcon or hawk. Associated with gods Ptah and Osiris.
  • Sekhmet - (a.k.a. Sachmet, Sachmis, Sekhet, Sakhmet) An important, multi-faceted goddess of war, healing, and the desert. Depicted as a woman with the head of a lioness.
  • Sepa - (a.k.a. Sep) The god who protected dead bodies from insects. Most often seen in the form of a venemous centipede.
  • Serket - (a.k.a. Selket, Serqet, Serquet, Selcis) The goddess protector against poisonous animal bites and stings. She wore a scorpion crown.
  • Seshat - (a.k.a. Sesat, Seshet, Sesheta, Seshata, Safkhet) Her name means "She Who Is A Scribe". This goddess of knowledge, wisdom, and writing is the record keeper of the gods.
  • Sesmu - (a.k.a. Shesmu, Shezmu, Schezemu, Sezmu) A minor "demonic" god of slaughter. He also embodied blood, wine, pressed oils, and perfumes.
  • Set - (a.k.a. Seth, Seti, Setekh, Setakh, Setesh, Sutekh, Suty) One of the major gods, representing violence, chaos, and evil, as well as storms, the desert, and foreign wars. Famously killed his own brother Osiris.
  • Shai - (a.k.a. Shay) The gender-changing god of fate (see Shait). Often seen paired with Renenet (fortune) as the "hands of Toth" - the divine knowledge of the gods.
  • Shait - The feminine incarnation of Shai (as a goddess rather than as a god).
  • Shed - He is the god of salvation, tied to Horus in the form of "Horus the Child".
  • Shesmetet - An ancient Egyptian goddess from the land of "Punt" - a close foreign trading neighbor. Possibly an incarnation of Sekhmet or Bastet.
  • Shu - (a.k.a. Su) A very ancient Egyptian god of air, father of Nut and Geb (the sky and earth, respectively), and pacifier of the winds and the earth.
  • Sopdet - (a.k.a. Sothis) Goddess of the star Sirius - the brightest in the night sky - which also represented the upcoming flooding of the Nile.
  • Sopdu - (a.k.a. Septu, Sopedu, Sopd) A god of war and the sky god of eastern Egypt. Protected Egypt from foreign attacks from the East and by the Red Sea.
  • Sphinx - With a human head and the body of a lion, the great Egyptian statue is dedicated to the very same figure from Greek mythology.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - T

  • Tatenen - (a.k.a. Ta-tenen, Tatjenen, Tathenen, Tanen, Tenen, Tanenu, Tanuu) A Memphis god who was associated with creation from the primoridal mounds of the Earth.
  • Taweret - (a.k.a. Taueret, Taurt, Thoeris, Thureris, Apet, Aptet, Ipy, Ipet, Opet, Reret, Reret Weret) An important goddess of Maternity and Childbirth she took the form of a pregnant hippopotamus.
  • Tefen - A male associate of Tefnut who helped with the weighing of the hearts of the dead.
  • Tefnut - (a.k.a. Tefnet, Tefenet, Tphenis) The goddess of moisture in Egyptian myth. She consorted with Shu, the air god to create rain and humidity.
  • Thoth - (a.k.a. Thot, Tetu, Techu, Tehuty, Tehuti, Tahuti, Djehuty, Zehuti) One of the most powerful and heralded gods in Egyptian mythology. Said to have created himself, then created the Universe.
  • Tutu - A unique monster god who protected the Egyptian people from demons, ill-willed gods, and later dreams and nightmares.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - U

  • Un Nefer - A name for either Osiris, Horus, or Ra (depending on who you ask) that refers to one of their roles judging and preparing the dead.
  • Unut - (a.k.a. Un, Wenut, Wenet) A rare, rabbit-headed goddess who symbolized birth and fertility. Formerly took the form of a swift-moving snake.

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - W

  • Wadj Wer - (a.k.a. Wadj-Wer) A somewhat androgynous god who represents the fertility of water and land, personified by the flooding of the Nile.
  • Wadjet - (a.k.a. Uadjet) A snake goddess often worshipped along with Bast, she protected pharoahs and pregnant women in cities who worshipped her.
  • Weneg - (a.k.a. Uneg) A sky and death god who could be invoked via a spell via the Pyramid Texts.
  • Wepawet - (a.k.a. Wepwawet) A war deity in the form of a wolf. He was first known as a scout, then as one who opened the way to victory, then to the afterlife.
  • Wosyet - (a.k.a. Waset, Wosret, Wasret, Wosret) A guardian goddess of Thebes whose name means "The Powerful"

Mga Dapat Tandaan sa Pagsusulat
Ang pagsusulat ay isang paglalarawan ng wika sa tekstuwal na tagapamagitan sa pamamagitan ng paggamit ng isang pangkat ng mga tanda o sagisag (kilala bilang sistema ng pagsusulat). Iniiba ito sa larawang-guhit, katulad ng mga larawang-guhit sa yungib at pinta, at ang pagtatala ng wika sa pamamagitan ng hindi-tekstuwal na tagapamagitan katulad ng magnetikong teyp na awdyo. Narito ang ilan sa mga bagay na dapat tandaan sa pagsusulat.

1. Iwasan ang pangawing na ay sa pangungusap
    -higit na mabisa ang pangungusap kapag walang ay.
    -naaangkop lamang ang ay bilang pangawing sa dalawang bahagi ng
    pangungusap na di magkaugnay.

2. Gamitin ang wastong salita
    Mali: Nang mabuksan niya ang bintana, tumagos sa silid ang liwanag.
    Tama:Nang mabuksan niya ang bintana, pumasok sa silid ang liwanag.

3. Iwasan ang salitang hiram na hindi kailangan tulad ng:

 pero
 mas
 sobra
 siguro
 pareho
 para
 masyado
 para que
 porque

    Wastong gamitin ang para bilang pang-ukol.
    Halimbawa:
    Para sa iyo ang mga bulaklak na ito.
   
    Wasto ring gamitin ang parang sa halip na tila.
    Halimbawa:
    Parang uulan.

4. Iwasto ang pagbabanghay ng mga pandiwa.

 Mali
 Tama
 Kinakalimutan
 kinalilimutan
 kakalimutan
 kalilimutan
 ikinakabuti
 ikinabubuti
 ikakabuti
 ikabubuti
 ipinapagamot
 ipinagagamot
 ipapagamot
 ipagagamot
 ipinapagsama
 ipinagsasama
 ipapagsama
 ipagsasama
 nakakalungkot
 nakalulungkot
 nakakapagbigay
 nakapagbibigay
 nakakapang-akit
 nakapang-aakit
 ipapagawa
 ipagagawa
 pinapasigaw
 pinasisigaw
 pinapag-usapan
 pinag-uusapan


5. Buuin ang banghay; hindi dapat mawala ang I sa simula o gitna ng pandiwa.
    Mali:
    Kinandado ko ang pinto.
    Bakit mo inurong ang demanda?
    Inakyat ko sa kwarto ang bentilador.
    Dali-dali naming siyang sinakay sa kotse.

6. Gamitin nang wasto ang may at mayroon.

7. Gamitin nang wasto ang ng at nang.

8. Huwag gawing pandiwa ang salitang Ingles.

9. Iuna ang pangngalan sa pang-uri.

10. Idugtong ang pang-angkop na na sa salitang sinusundan kapag nagwawakas ito sa patinig na N.
    Wasto: Nasunog kahapon ang tindahang binibilhan namin ng sapatos.
    Mali: Nasunog kahapon ang tindahan na binibilhan namin ng sapatos.

11. Iwasan ang pagsusunud-sunod ng higit sa dalawang salitang nagtatapos sa –ng.
    Wasto: Ayaw niyang maniwala na walang pasok sa Sabado.
    Mali: Ayaw niyang maniwalang walang pasok sa Sabado.

12. Hindi na kailangan ang pantukoy na mga kapag ginagamit ang pangngalan bilang palasak.
    Wasto: Murang-mura ngayon ang melon.
    Kulang na kulang sa doktor ang nayon namin.
    Mali: Murang mura ngayon ang mga melon.
    Kulang na kulang sa mga doktor ang nayon namin.

13. Iwasan ang katagang walang silbi.
    Wasto:Marami pa akong ikukwento sa iyo bukod sa narinig mo na.
    Mali: Marami pa akong ikukwento sa iyo bukod pa roon sa mga narinig mo na.

14. Huwag lumikha ng sariling pandiwa o pandiwari.
    Iwasan:
    May kailangan siya kaya maganda ang pagsalita niya sa akin.
    Huwag mong tapunin ang papel na iyan.
    Sagutan mo na ang sulat ng nanay mo.

15. Gamitin ang wastong gitlapi.

 Mali
 Tama
 ihinihiwalay
 inihihiwalay
 ilinalabas
 inilalabas
 iwinawasiwas
 iniwawasiwas


16. Baybayin nang buo ang mga salita.
    Mali:
    Lumakas ang ulan nung mag-aalas singko.
    Nauunawaan ko na yung ipinaliliwanag mo.
    Huwag niyong kalilimutan ang bilin ko.
    Ke dami mo naming sinasabi.
    Mataas siya kesa sa iyo.
    Baka hindi mo siya Makita uli.
    Nasa taas ng aparador ang hinahanap mo.
    Nagdadalwang isip ako tungkol sa balak natin.
    Konti na akong masagasaan kanina.
    Ba’t lagi kang nakasimangot?

    Iwasan din ang paggamit ng ewan at ayoko.
    Sa pagsulat, gamitin ang lamang, hindi ang kolokyal na lang.

Mga Malalalim na Salitang Filipino at ang mga Kahulugan Nito

Marami sa atin ang nalilito kapag nakakatagpo tayo ng mga malalalim na salita sa tuwing tayo ay nagbabasa. Bunga nito ang hindi pagkakaroon ng paguunawa sa binabasa lalong lalo na kapag hindi natin alam ang ibig sabihin ng mga salitang ating nabasa. Kung kaya naman, mahalagang pagtuunang pansin ang mga salitang hindi familyar sa atin. Narito ang ilan sa mga malalalim na salitang filipino at ang mga kahulugan nito. Kabilang sa listahan ang mga salitang isinalin sa mas madaling maunawaang mga kahulugan. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng salitang...

A
adhika - nais o gusto
agam - agam-pangamba
agamahan - relihiyon
agapayang kabit - koneksiyong paralel
agapayang salikop - sirket na paralel
agbarog - arkitekto
agham - siyensiya
aghamtao - antropolohiya
aghimuan - teknolohiya
agimatan - ekonomika, ekonomiks
agsikapin - inhenyero
aligin - baribulo
alipugha - iresponsable
alisbahabaybata - histerektomiya
alunig - resonasya
angaw - milyon
angkan - pamilya
anluwage - karpintero
awanggan - inpidad
awanging tubo - tubong bakum

B
bagwis - pakpak
bahagdan - porsyento
bahagimbilang - praksyon (fraction)
bahagimbilang (hatimbilang) - praksiyon
balamban - membrano
balidasig - akselerasyong negatibo
balikhaan - regenerasyon
balintataw - imahinasyon
balintuna - laban o kabaliktaran
balisultag - imbolusyon
balisuplingan - reproduksiyon
balnian - magnetika
bandos - kometa, kometin
banoy - agila
basisig - lakas na sentripugalo
batalan - lababo
bathalaan - teolohiya
batidwad - telegrama
batlag - kotse
batnayan - pilosopiya
batubalani (bato-balani) - magnet (batong magnesyo)
bilnuran - aritmetiko
binhay - kagaw
buhagsigwasan - niyumatika
buhalhal - busalsal; bulagsak
bumukal - dumaloy
buntabay - satelayt, kampon
buntala (bungang-tala) - planeta
burok - pula
butang - materya
buturan - nukleonika
buumbilang - (whole number) lahat
buumbilang - intedyer
buyo  - akit; himok

D
dagap - kabuoan
dagibalniing liboy - kulot na elektromagnetiko
dagikapnayan - elektrokemistri
dagilap - radyoaktibidad
dagindas - elektroda
dagisik - elektrono
dagisikan - elektronika
dagitab - koryente, elektrisidad
dagsa - momento
dagsin (balani) - grabidad
dakbatlag - trak
daklunsod - metropolis
daksipat - teleskopyo
daktinig - pang-ulong hatinig
dalas - prekwensiya
dalubaral - iskolar
dalubbanwahan - agham pampolitika
dalubbatasan - batas na agham
dalubhalmanan - botanya
dalubhasa - eksperto
dalubhasaan - kolehiyo, instituto
dalubhayupan - zoolohiya
dalubibunan - ornitolohiya
dalub-isipan - sikolohiya
dalublahian - etnonolohiya
dalubsakahan - tagalog sa agriculture
dalubsakahan - agrikultura
dalubsakit-babae - hinekolohiya
dalubtalaan - astronomya
dalubtauhan - antropolohiya
dalubulnungan - sosyolohiya
dalubwikaan - linggwistika
dalwikaang - bilinggwal
damikay - polinomyal
dantaon - siglo
dantay - impulsa
danumsigwasan - hidraulika
dasig - akselerasyon
datay - nakaratay
dawit - industansiya
dihaying - walang organikong kimika
disaluyan - di-konduktor
duhagi - api; dusta
duhakay - binomyal
duhandas - diyoda
dumagat - halkon, palkon
dumatal - dumating
durungawan - bintana
duyog - elipsa

G
gaso - gaslaw; harot
gilis - hipotenusa
ginapas - inani
gipalpal - punong-puno
gitisig - lakas na sentripetal

H
habyog - torka
hagibis - belodidad
hagway - proporsiyon
hambinging bigat - espesipikong bigat
handulong - daluhong; sugod
hanggaan - limitasyon
hatimbutod - mitosiso
hatinig - telepono
hatintaon - semestre
haying - organikong kimika
haykapnayan - biyokimika
hayliknayan - biyopisika
haynayan - biyolohiya
haynayanon - biyolohista
hibo - hikayat
himatay - apopleksya
hinuha - haypotesis
hinuhod - sang-ayon
humahalimuyak - nagsasabog ng amoy na mabango
humihigop - basyo
hunain - teorem

I
ibay - lango; lasing
ibutod - nukleolus
imbot - hangad; sakim
initan - kumpas
initsigan - termodinamika
inunan - plasenta
ipagbabadya - sasabihin
iring - ayaw, tanggi
isakay - monomial
ishay - bakterya
isigan - dinamika
itinatangis - iniiyak

K
kaalkahan - alkalinidad
kaasdan - akididad
kabatas - tagapagpatupad ng batas
kabisa - andar
kabtol - lipat
kabuuran - nukleo, nukleyus
kaginsa - ginsa-hindi inaasahan
kalampi - kalakip; kasama
kalawakang araw, sangkaarawan - sistemang solar
kapakumbabaan - kababaang-loob
kapbisa - metabolismo
kapnayan - kimika
kapnayang kayarian - strukturang kimikal
kapnayanon - kimiko
kapsira - katabolismo
kapyari - anabolismo
kasagwilan - resistibidad
katiktik - detektiba
katipan - syota
katoto - kaibigan
kauukilkil - katatatanong
kawas - bawas
kinipkip - dinala sa kamay
kubyertos - kutsara o tinidor
kumakandili - nagmamalasakit
kuntadurya - akwant

L
lahatan - pangkalahatang kimika
laksa - libo
laktod - maikling paligid
lalik - torno
lanyos - lambing
lapang - piraso; hati
lapya - plano
larang - ekwilibryo
laumin - integral
libay - babaeng usa
liboy - dayulon
libuyhaba - habang dayulon
liknayan - pisika
lilimiin - iisipin
linab - grasa
lukong - concave
lulan - kapasitansiya
lulos - hakbangan
lunduyang-saliksik - sentrong pananaliksik
lunos - lungkot

M
magpahingalay - magpahinga
mahumaling - magkagusto
makabuntala - asteroyd
malabuntala - planetoyd
malasaluyan - semikonduktor
mamangha - magtaka
manukala - suhestiyon
mapakilangkap - maisama
mapalisya - magkamali
mapalugmok - mapadapa
mapaluwal - mapalabas
mapaniil - abusado
marahuyo - maakit
masimod  - matakaw
matarik - makakapiling
matarok - maunawaan
matatap - malaman
matitimyas - matatamis o magaganda
mayamungmong - madahon
mikhay - mikroba
mikhaynayan - mikrobiyolohiya
miksipat - mikroskopyo
miktataghay - mikroorganismo
miktinig - mikropono
mulapik - atomo
mulatik - molekula, molekyul
mulhagi - elemento (matematika)
mulhay - protosowa
mulpikan - atomikong pisika
mulsakitin - patogeniko

N
naapuhap - nahanap
nabuslot - nahulog sa butas
nag-aalimpuyo - nangangalit
nag-aalimpuyo - nangangalit
nagahis - natalo
nag-apuhap - nag-isip, naghanap
naghamok - naglaban
nagkukumahog - nagmamadali
nagugulugudan - bertebrado
nakadatal - nakarating
nalilingid - natatago
namamangha - nagugulat
namamanglaw - nalulungkot
namanatag - namayapa
nanambitan - nakiusap
nangaduhagi - nangatalo
nangamba - nag-alala
nangungulimlim - dumidilim
nanunudyo - temtasyon
napagbulay - bulay-napag-isip-isip
naraig - natalo
nasindak- natakot
natalos - nalaman
natanto - nalaman
nautas - napatay
nawawaglit - nawawala
nililo - dinaya

P
pag-inog - ebolusyon (siklo ng buhay)
pagniniig - interaksyon
palaasalan - etnika
palabaybayan - ortograpya
paladutaan - heolohiya
palamara - masama
palapusuan - kardiolohiya
palasantingan - aestetika
palasigmuan - mekanismo
palasihayan - kitolohiya
palatangkasan - teoriyang nakatakda
palatumbasan - teoriyang ekwasyon
palaulatan - estadistika
pamilang - numeral
panakda - numerator
panakwil - resistor
panandaan - alhebra
panawit - induktor
panghadlang - insuleytor, insulador
pangibayo - amplipayer
panlulan - kapasitor, kapasidor
pantablay - pangkarga
panulatan - sulat
panuos - kompyuter
pariugat (parisukat-ugat) - ugat ng kwadrado (ugat-kwadrado)
parurunan - pupuntahan
piging - party
pinangulag - pinatayo
pitak - bahagi
pook-sapot - website
punyal - itak
pusong - payaso

R
rabaw - balat (ibabaw)
ragandang - darang
ramilyete - pumpon ng bulaklak
refran - kasabihan; salawikain
rueda - gulong

S
sabansain - nasyunalista
sagadsad - dausdos; tuloy-tuloy
sakwil - resistansiya
salanggapang - walanghiya
salapsap - pagbalat ng prutas gamit ang kutsilyo
saliding saloy - alternatibang kasalukuyan
saligwil - transistor
salikop - sirkwit
salinlahi - henerasyon
salipawpaw - eroplano
saloy - kasalukuyan
salumpuwit - upuan
saluyan - konduktor
sanlibutan - galaksiya
sansinukob - uniberso
sanyo - baribulo
sapantaha - hinala
sayad - ilalam
sigwasan - mekanika
sihay - selula
siskin - matatag
simpan - ngat; sinop
sinamomo - isang uri ng halaman
sinsay - awit; pigil-pigil
sipnayan - matematika
subyang - tinik
sugaan - optika
suglamuman - potosintesiso
sukatan - kwantitatibang kimika
sukgisan - heometriya
sulatroniko - email
sunurang kabit - seryang koneksiyon

T
tablay - elektrikong singil
taborete - upuan
tadlong - perpendikular
tagil, tagilo - piramide, piramid
takap - hamon
talaksan - papeles
talinghaga - misteryo
talipandas - makapal ang mukha
talukay - trinomyal
talundas - triyoda
tampalasan - malupit
tangkakal - tanggol; ligtas
taol - kombulsiyon
tapapetso - panakip sa dibdib
tatsihaan - trigonometriya
tayahan - kalkulo
tigal - intertya
tigilan - istatika
tika - mithi
tikop - kirkumperensiya
timbulog - isperikal
tingirin - diperensiyal
tingkala - unawa; isip
tipanan - lugar kung saan sila nagtatagpo
tsubibo - ferris-wheel
tugoy - oskilasyon
tugoysipat - oskilaskopa
tulig - tuliro; taranta
tumahan - tumira
tumalima - sumunod
tumangan - humawak
tumbasan - ekwasyon
tungayaw - talak
tunugan - akustika
tuwang - tulong
tuwirang saloy - idirektang kasalukuyan

U
ulyabid, ulay - bulate
umagapay - sumabay
urian - kwalitatibang kimika

W
wani - ayos; husay; kalinisan
wilik - mamalya


yamo - imbot; sakim

17 Regions of the Philippines

Philippines is an archipelago which mean, it's consist of lots of islands.The Philippine archipelago comprises about 7,641 islands, of which only about 2,000 are inhabited. They are clustered into the three major island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. More than 5,000 islands of the archipelago are yet to be named. There are 17 regions in the Philippines and here are they:

1. LUZON

(NCR) NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION 
Caloocan City
Las Piñas City
Makati City
Malabon City
Mandaluyong City
Manila
Marikina City
Muntinlupa City
Navotas City
Parañaque City
Pasay City
Pasig City
Pateros City
Quezon City
San Juan City
Taguig City
Valenzuela City.

(CAR) CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION

Abra
Apayao
Benguet
Ifugao,
Kalinga
Mountain Province

( Region I ) ILOCOS REGION
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Sur
La Union
Pangasinan

( Region II ) CAGAYAN VALLEY

Batanes
Cagayan
Isabela
Nueva Viscaya
Quirino

( Region III ) CENTRAL LUZON

Aurora
Bataan
Bulacan
Nueva Ecija
Pampanga
Tarlac
Zambales

( Region IV-A ) CALABARZON
Cavite
Laguna
Batangas
Rizal
Quezon

( Region IV-B ) MIMAROPA
Marinduque
Occidental Mindoro
Oriental Mindoro
Romblon
Palawan

( Region V ) BICOL REGION
Albay
Camarines Norte
Camarines Sur
Catanduanes
Masbate
Sorsogon

2. VISAYAS

(Region VI ) WESTERN VISAYAS
Aklan
Antique
Capiz
Guimaras
Iloilo
Negros Occidental

(Region VII ) CENTRAL VISAYAS
Bohol
Cebu
Negros Oriental
Siquijor

(Region VIII ) EASTERN VISAYAS
Biliran
Eastern Samar
Leyte
Northern samar
Samar
Southern Leyte

3. MINDANAO

( Region IX ) ZAMBOANGA PENINZULA
Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Sur
Zamboanga Sibugay

( Region X ) NORTHERN MINDANAO
Bukidnon
Camiguin
Lanao del Norte
Misamis Occidental
Misamis Oriental

( Region XI ) DAVAO REGION
Compostela Valley
Davao del Norte
Davao del sur
Davao Oriental

( Region XII) SOCCSKSRGEN
Cotabato
Sarangani
South Cotabato
Sultan Kudarat
General Santos City

( Region XIII) CARAGA
Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Sur
Dinagat Islands
Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Sur

(ARMM) AUTONOMOUS REGION IN MUSLIM MINDANAO

Basilan
Lanao del Sur
Maguindanao
Shariff Kabunsuan
Sulu
Tawi-tawi

Top 10 Clinically Proven Medicinal Plants in the Philippines

List of the ten (10) medicinal plants that the Philippine Department of Health (DOH) through its "Traditional Health Program" have endorsed. All ten (10) herbs have been thoroughly tested and have been clinically proven to have medicinal value in the relief and treatment of various aliments:

1. Lagundi (Vitex negundo) - known in English as the "5-leaved chaste tree". It's main use is for the relief of coughs and asthma.

2. Yerba Buena (Clinopodium douglasii) - commonly known as Peppermint, this vine is used as an analgesic to relive body aches and pain. It can be taken internally as a decoction or externally by pounding the leaves and applied directly on the afflicted area.

3. Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) - known as "bitter gourd" or "bitter melon" in English, it most known as a treatment of diabetes (diabetes mellitus), for the non-insulin dependent patients.

4. Bawang (Allium sativum) - popularly known as "garlic", it mainly reduces cholesterol in the blood and hence, helps control blood pressure.

5. Akapulko (Cassia alata) - also known as "bayabas-bayabasan" and "ringworm bush" in English, this herbal medicine is used to treat ringworms and skin fungal infections.

6. Ulasimang Bato (Peperomia pellucida) - also known as "pansit-pansitan" it is effective in fighting arthritis and gout. The leaves can be eaten fresh (about a cupful) as salad or like tea. For the decoction, boil a cup of clean chopped leaves in 2 cups of water. Boil for 15 to 20 minutes. Strain, let cool and drink a cup after meals (3 times day).

7. Bayabas (Psidium guajava) - "guava" in English. It is primarily used as an antiseptic, to disinfect wounds. Also, it can be used as a mouth wash to treat tooth decay and gum infection.

8. Sambong (Blumea balsamifera) - English name: Blumea camphora. A diuretic that helps in the excretion of urinary stones. It can also be used as an edema.

9. Niyog-niyogan (Quisqualis indica L.) - is a vine known as "Chinese honey suckle". It is effective in the elimination of intestinal worms, particularly the Ascaris and Trichina. Only the dried matured seeds are medicinal - crack and ingest the dried seeds two hours after eating (5 to 7 seeds for children & 8 to 10 seeds for adults). If one dose does not eliminate the worms, wait a week before repeating the dose.

10. Tsaang Gubat (Ehretia microphylla Lam.) - Prepared like tea, this herbal medicine is effective in treating intestinal motility and also used as a mouth wash since the leaves of this shrub has high fluoride content.

Tips on Handling Medicinal Plants / Herbs:

  • If possible, buy herbs that are grown organically - without pesticides.
  • Medicinal parts of plants are best harvested on sunny mornings. Avoid picking leaves, fruits or nuts during and after heavy rainfall.
  • Leaves, fruits, flowers or nuts must be mature before harvesting. Less medicinal substances are found on young parts.
  • After harvesting, if drying is required, it is advisable to dry the plant parts either in the oven or air-dried on screens above ground and never on concrete floors.
  • Store plant parts in sealed plastic bags or brown bottles in a cool dry place without sunlight preferably with a moisture absorbent material like charcoal. Leaves and other plant parts that are prepared properly, well-dried and stored can be used up to six months.

Tips on Preparation for Intake of Herbal Medicines:

  • Use only half the dosage prescribed for fresh parts like leaves when using dried parts.
  • Do not use stainless steel utensils when boiling decoctions. Only use earthen, enamelled, glass or alike utensils.
  • As a rule of thumb, when boiling leaves and other plant parts, do not cover the pot, and boil in low flame.
  • Decoctions loose potency after some time. Dispose of decoctions after one day. To keep fresh during the day, keep lukewarm in a flask or thermos.
  • Always consult with a doctor if symptoms persist or if any sign of allergic reaction develops.

The Prehistoric Culture in the Philippines

Prehistoric Writing

Upon the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, most of the people were already capable of reading and writing. Wrote Pedro Chirino in 1602, "...there is scarcely anybody who cannot read and write in letters proper to the island of Manila."
Where the ancient way of writing in the Philippines came from is still a bone of contention. However, the fact that the people who inhabited areas near rivers and coasts were the most literate indicates that, in the beginning, script was utilized to note down transactions because these places were significant trading centers. It was only after some time that writing was used to note down literature.
Today there are three artifacts that are evidence of early Filipino writing - the silver paleograph found in Butuan, the earthenware pot from Calatagan, Batangas and the most significant of all, the copper plate from Laguna de Bay dated 900 A.D.
After studying the few samples on early script, Robert Fox concludes that there are at least 16 kinds of syllabary writing utilized by various groups of people. The alphabet was composed of three vowel syllable-signs: A, EI, and OU; and 14 consonants: B, D, G, H, K, L, M, N, NG, P, S, T, W, and Y.
At present there are two indigenous communities that still use syllabic script. These are the Mangyan in Mindoro and the Tagbanua in Palawan. This mode of writing is said to be Indic-derived and originated from southern Indonesia.

Precolonial Literature

As expressed in their native literature, Filipino culture at the time of discovery was high. Native literature started as a manifestation of the people's love to their deities, anitos, spirits, gods and goddesses. It consisted of songs (awits or dalits), maxims or sabi, riddles or bugtong, prayers, proverbs or sawikain, and of "a kind of face representing and criticizing local customs (examples are duplo and karagatan in which riddles or bugtong play a considerable role)." According to early historians, there were no less than twenty kinds of songs. In prose, they had fables and drolls. The native plays were invariably associated with music. The players danced and sang to the accompaniment of the string instruments called codyapi, bangsi and colelong. The music and the dance were executed not only as a form of amusement but as a serious occupation.
Unfortunately, the materials that came down to us on the native literature were very scarce. Whatever materials that were passed on were preserved through oral tradition, while the others were recorded by the early missionary chroniclers.

Trade plays an important role in enriching the art of the region. More than 40,000 pieces of trade potteries, which represent the intensity of formal trade, have been recovered in the Philippines with 80% of these coming from South China.

The Manunggul Vase and other burial jars

Among the artifacts unearthed in the Tabon Caves in Palawan is a vase which Robert Fox claims to be the most beautiful burial jar in the whole of Southeast Asia. Called the Manunggul Vase, it is intricately designed. The cover of the jar supports a ship of the dead with two figures holding a paddle each, sailing into the netherworld. Red hematite painting accentuates sophisticated and attractive designs on the body of the jar. The cover design is further proof of our ancestors' belief in the afterworld. Other sites like the Sta. Ana Convent in Manila have been havens for looters and archeologists alike because of the many graves and jars that have been dug. The convent, which was built on a large burial and habitation mound, is pre-Spanish in date and is more than three meters deep, with pottery found in all levels. Fox is also of the opinion that this was a major trade center during the 11th to 14th centuries since it is near the Pasig River.
But burial jars were not the only jars that existed in the area. Also unearthed were jars used for domestic chores. Plainer, less intricate and less spectacular, with little to no variations in form, the essence of these vases were more functional than aesthetic. Some vases, used for rituals, were of more variation and had a wide range in form.
Still other jars have been unearthed, those of Chinese origin. Fox says that with the advent of trade, dragon jars gradually replaced locally made earthenware vessels. Also unearthed were beautiful and large collections of Thai pottery, including rare Khmer jars and other vessels.

Music, Dances, and Songs
Filipino music, dances,and songs unquestionably antedated the coming of the Spaniards. The Spaniards who came to the Philippines in the 16th century had observed and had written down their observations on Philippine culture including the native customs and traditions. Pigafetta, the official historian of the Magellan expedition, himself witnessed four young women in Cebu harmoniously playing with the native cymbals which they called platiles. A member of the Villalobos expedition attended a stately banquet in Samar where he noticed the native girls dancing to the music of a local orchestra. Ancient Filipino dances and songs were primarily done as serious occupations of the natives. Each tribe had its own musical instruments, songs and dances. The pagans of Northern Luzon had the nose flutes, bamboo mouth organs, harps called subing or aphiw, gansa or brass gong, bansic or flute, and colibao or long drum. The Visayans had the lantoy or flute, subing or a bamboo harp, paiyak or water whistle, bugtot or guitar, kudyapi, and sista. The Tagalogs used the barimbaw, kalutang, bigwela and kudyapi. The Ilokanos, likewise, used the kutibeng which is very similar to the Tagalog bigwela. The Moros from Mindanao played the gabbang similar to a xylophone, agong which is a bronze gong, tugo or a drum, lantuy or flute, etc. The songs were usually melancholic and woven around themes of love, woman and war. They were highly spiced with romance and poetry. The natives had war songs, festival songs, melancholy songs, religious songs, love songs, folk songs, ballads, heroic songs and different kinds of songs for harvests, for building terraces and houses, for catching fish, animals, etc. The kundiman, the kumintang and the balitao (a dance) at the same time were among the most popular songs. The Ilokanos had a ballad-epic song called dallot, depicting the life and heroism of Lam-ang, who according to his people, conquered the primitive tribes of Luzon.
In precolonial Philippines, songs were very closely associated with dances, so that a singer was also a dancer and vice versa. The most primitive dances could be traced to the war dance in order to incite the "warlike" enthusiasm of the natives. Natives performed the dances primarily to please the god and the anitos, and the spirits who, it was believed, were always jealous of the actions of the natives. They danced much in the same way as our modern pantomimes.
In religious dances, the dancer or the priestess danced to exhaustion, until she fell to the floor foaming in the mouth and was believed to be possessed of the spirits. Prehispanic Filipinos also danced to please themselves during their festivals and other merry-making occasions.

The Emergence of the Elite

Before the coming of the Spaniards, the Philippines already had an existing social structure and political organization, which consisted of small chiefdoms. Archeologists and anthropologists describe chiefdoms as societies headed by individuals with unusual rituals and political entrepreneurial skills. While still based on family ties and kinship like the tribes, chiefdoms are more hierarchical with the power concentrated in the hands of powerful kin leaders. These leaders are in turn responsible for the redistribution of resources within their political domain.
Analysis of the earthenware pottery recovered from the excavation in the Bais Region of eastern Negros Island, central Philippines reveals the existence of a "prestige goods" trade between the Philippines and its neighboring countries. According to Junker, the operation of such a prestige goods economy and trade between the Philippine chiefdoms and the complex societies of mainland Asia began in the 10th century AD and intensified just before the coming of the Spaniards in the 15th and 16th centuries. Participation by the leaders in this trade was strongly linked to a centralized control of an interregional system of production, exchange and resource mobilization. Studies indicate that lowland-produced earthenware varied from region to region before the coming of foreign luxury trade goods in the 10th century. After the emergence of foreign trade, archeological evidences show earthenware that was more or less standardized. This indicated a change in pottery production modes: from scattered household production to full-time, large-scale production. These changes in pottery production, according to Junker, may be linked to a powerful lowland "government" which tried to gain control of upland raw material acquisition for improved participation in foreign trade.

Chiefdoms along the Coastline
At the time of European contact, the coastlines of most of the major Philippine islands and some regions already had numerous, politically complex, and regionally centralized societies. These societies also had well-developed systems of social stratification.
Just like the chiefdoms in Mexico and Hawaii, the members of the chiefly class in the Philippine chiefdoms played a central role in the administration of a complex regional economy. The chiefs controlled agricultural livelihood by restricting land tenure. They mobilized surplus through a system of tribute payments and gained wealth through sponsorships of raiding or trading expeditions for sources of prestige goods like porcelain and jewelry. They used this wealth for building political alliances with other chiefdoms which would then result in a stronger economy.
Aside from mobilizing resources within the lowland agriculturists under their direct sovereignty, Philippine chiefs, according to Junker, also facilitated the exchanges between lowlanders and interior tribal swiddening societies and the hunter-gatherers.
Interior resources gained from this upland-lowland trade like metal ores and other forest products were directly tied to prestige goods production and acquisition.

The Stones of the Sea
Because chiefdoms were founded near bodies of water, civilizations during the precolonial era were prone to sea attacks. The question about how they protected themselves against these attacks were answered mostly by speculations brought about by the presence of ruins. Among these are prehistoric monuments in Batanes, the northernmost region of the country. Called ijangs or idyangs, these castle-like structures are prominent landmarks found near the towns and barrios and are high rocky formations which, archeologists surmise, served as fortresses and refuge against enemies. Ijangs were hills with shaven tops, giving them a plateau-like appearance. Florentino Hornedo speculates that people from warring clans used to climb the ijangs when attacking. To defend themselves, the attacked stayed on the flattened top of the hills and threw stones at the climbers from above the fortress.
Unearthed within the vicinity of the ijangs are burnt wood and pottery. These artifacts have been unearthed from the ashes of Mt. Iraya after its eruption at around 350 BC, and suggest that the Batanes region had already been inhabited as early as more than 2000 years ago.


Trading with China
Chinese texts and archeological data from Philippine sites suggest an intensive long-distance trade between Philippine chiefdoms and China. Karl Hutterer defines "long-distance trade" as "sustained and direct exchange links with geographically distant societies, whereby the distant origin of the exchange goods has implications not only on their valuation but also on the social and economic mobilization of return goods and socially restricted access to imports."
The trade reached its peak in terms of volume during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Philippine chiefs were primarily interested in obtaining luxury goods like porcelains, silk, magnetite mirrors, and gold jewelry from the Chinese traders. These goods were usually recorded as bodily ornaments for the elite. They are usually found as accompaniments or grave furnishings at high-state burials. These luxury goods are usually presented as objects of wealth in the households of the elite. In short, these goods coming from China imply the existence of a native elite, an elite conscious enough of their status in society. The Chinese traders in return, get interior forest products like metal ores, forest hardwood and resins from the elite. This indicates a direct link to the internal lowland-upland trade since the forest products had to be obtained via internal networks of trade.

Archeological evidence of trade with Asian neighbors
The most noticeable archeological fact of late Philippine prehistory is the abundant presence of glazed Asiatic import pottery. This pottery begins to appear in the archeological record sometime around 1000 AD and is thereafter present continuously until the Spanish colonizers diverted the porcelain to Mexico and Europe by the early 17th century. Over this period of 600 years or so, the pattern of trade wares encountered in Philippine archeological sites changes drastically. Only a tiny handful of wares, mostly in Mindanao can be dated with a minimal degree of confidence to the late T'ang Dynasty (618-907). Even wares datable to the Early Sung period (960-1126) are quite rare. Pottery import increased rapidly, however, during the Late Sung (1127-1279) and Yuan (1280-1368) periods. There was also a significant increase in pottery import during the 15th and 16th centuries of the Ming Dynasty (1369-1640).
It is not only the quantities of Asiatic import pottery that change. The earliest (T'ang and early Sung) wares found in the Philippines were of relatively high quality and highly diverse in both functional and stylistic terms. As the quantity of export pottery increased, both their quality and diversity decreased. During the Late Sung period, average quality of the glazed wares remained relatively high, but noticeable distinction developed between a diverse set of fine wares (including such items as incense burners, various jars and jarlets, small sculptures, small bowls and serving dishes, specialty items, etc.) During this time a much more uniform set of lower quality utilitarian wares (consisting primarily of small bowls and dishes, and a few forms of soft-bodied wares) emerged. During the 13th and 14th centuries, there appeared also very delicate wares, some of them perhaps even experimental in terms of the development of manufacturing techniques and decoration by South Chinese kilns. Among these items were fine white porcelains of the ying-ch'ing and shu-fu variety. There were also wares with underglaze decoration in the form of dark brown spots executed in iron pigments and delicate stylized painting in copper and blue. Majority of these wares consisted of very small and delicate items in the form of bowls and covered boxes, small flasks, perfume bottles, water droppers, brush holders, small saucers, tiny jarlets, and small figurines. By the 15th and 16th centuries, a radical change was noticeable. At this time, blue and white porcelain was well-established as a stylistic form and dominated the wares found in the Philippines. The imported pottery of that period was dominated by low-quality, mass-produced, chiefly blue-and-white items represented mainly by eating and serving bowls, some extremely large bowls and platters and jars in different sizes. Items of truly outstanding quality were truly rare.
Another change was in the composition of ceramic assemblages in late prehistoric Philippine sites. In the 14th century, there appeared glazed ceramics manufactured in Vietnam and Thailand. Although coarser than fine Chinese wares during that period, they joined the latter in terms of their exotic forms, represented by small covered bowls, ewers, kendis and bottles, bowls, jarlets and small saucers. In some sites in the Visayas and in Mindanao, these kinds of porcelain make up 30 percent of the export pottery present.
Virtually all of the materials in hand were found in prehistoric graves which contain several pieces of imported ceramics. Relatively few porcelain sherds are found in the habitation debris. The situation is exactly the opposite with regard to locally manufactured earthenware pottery: while whole earthen vessels are common in graves predating circa 1200 AD, they are rare in later burials; yet earthenware sherds remained common in habitation contexts. There also seem to be significant changes in the spatial distribution of export wares over the period of 600 years. It appears that the distribution of Chinese wares is quite uneven at first. The early wares can be found in scattered localities, that is, in just a few larger sites, while many other contemporaneous sites do not have any porcelain. By about the 14th century, however, export wares become much more widely distributed. The distinction of finer and coarser wares mentioned appears to have a correlation with the spatial distribution of these wares. Fine wares are more common in larger coastal sites while coarser wares predominate in smaller and non-coastal locations.

Precolonial Women

Precolonial Philippine society was already highly organized. This could be seen not only through the customs and traditions of the early Filipinos but also through the role definitions between precolonial men and women.
Contrary to popular belief, Philippine society was not always patriarchal. There was a time when women were treated as equally as men. Precolonial "Filipinas," unlike their modern day counterparts, enjoyed the same privileges, rights and opportunites as did men. They played key roles both in and outside. Before the coming of the Spaniards, women were already active in business, politics and even religion.
According to Sister Mary John Mananzan,O.S.B., in volume 2 of the Kasaysayan series, precolonial families were as eager for the birth of a daughter as for the birth of a son. The daughter was considered an important member of the family since the groom would have to give a dowry to her family as compensation for her loss. The dowry could be in the form of gifts to parents and relatives. Aside from these, the groom was also required to render "bride service," working for the family for a probationary period. After marriage, the Filipina did not lose her name. Among the Tagalogs, the husband usually took the bride's name if the she was especially distinguished due to family connections or personal merits.
Precolonial Philippine society did not consider virginity a value. Unwed mothers were not condemned. They did not also lose the chance for a good marriage since they were considered to have proven their capacity for motherhood. While premarital sex was not a taboo, the law of custom, however, punished promiscuity and prostitution.
Children were treated equally. Precolonial families were neither overprotective with girls nor lenient with boys. Daughters were brought up in the same way as the sons. No one was exempted from work training. Legitimate male children got the same inheritance as their female siblings.
In the family, husbands and wives were also equal. Husbands treated their wives as companions and not as slaves or whores. The wife was also financially independent since she retained the property she owned before marriage. Both the husband and the wife had the right to file for divorce since this was practiced. The grounds for divorce were childlessness, infidelity, or failure to fulfill obligations to the family. In theory, husbands and wives had equal rights, although in practice, wives had limited causes for divorce.
Divorce entailed the return of the bride's price by her family if she was at fault; if the husband was at fault, he lost rights to its return. Child custody was not a problem since the children were divided between the two regardless of sex. Property acquired after marriage was also split equally. In some cases, the guilty party had to pay fines.
The married woman juggled between managing the home, taking care of the children, at the same time helping her husband in earning the family's livelihood. She often played a key role in the family's economic stability and in improving the family's finances by engaging in agriculture and trade with the Chinese merchants. Precolonial Filipinas were often considered as reliable trade partners, thus, women's signatures were often required to validate contracts.

Language
Our language, as well as the language of neighboring countries, is said to be of autronesian origins. Taken from the Latin austro, meaning southern, and the Greek neses, meaning islands, austronesian carried out one of humankind's greatest population movements from their reputed homeland in Southeast Asia to the Pacific islands, which is equivalent to one third of the globe. Before 1500, it was said to be the most widespread language. At present, it is spoken by 270 million people, including Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Madagascar. Also spoken by the inhabitants of the Pacific islands (Micro-, Mela-, and Polynesia) and the aborigines in Taiwan, Vietnam and Campuchea, New Guinea, the Mergui Archipelago in Burma, Hainan Island, and South China, it is said to have come from one family, the Proto-Austonesian language, because of the similarities in vocabulary.
Studies suggest that speakers used words that related to rice cultivation and boat-making, this prompting them to suggest that the people who spoke this language had a culture in which ancestral homelands, horticulture, animal domestication and boat making were known. This is further supported by botanical studies that reveal that in areas populated by Austronesians, domesticated plants such as yam, taro, sugar cane, banana, breadfruit, and coconut were commonly used by the people. Further proof that the languages spoken by the above mentioned countries are one and the same can be found in the genetic evidences that link each of the countries to the autronesian origin.

Where they come from
The origins of the language are said to come from approximately the coastal areas of mainland Southeast Asia and several islands in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Indonesia.Near the coasts, because these are the areas closest to the centers of early civilization and population growth.
There are two theories regarding the movement of the language.
The first one, the Mainland Origin Hypothesis, is by Peter Belwood. According to him, the movement of austronesian is from south China and Taiwan, spreading toward the south and the west. With an economy based on cereals (rice and millets), austronesia spread from the south of Yangtze River into Taiwan, and the northern Philippines in 5000 BC - 4000 BC and into Indonesia in 45000 BC. Austronesians, according to Bellwood, replaced the hunters and the gatherers of the Pleistoscene era. Because of the population growth and the instability of agriculture, prehistoric man learned to plant crops for food. With agriculture to depend on, food supply was more stable and population increased, prompting them to look for other unoccupied areas, bringing with them their languages. This is evidenced by the fact that families of languages are found where agriculture first started (in China and New Guinea, for instance). This led to the development of new societies. These horticultural people then taught the hunters their food production techniques, eliminating their dependence on perpetual hunting.
Solheim's Island Origin Hypothesis states that austronesians originated in Southeast Asia and spread from there. Proto-Austronesian, he says, developed in Northern indonesia and the Mindanao Islands, spread northwards when maritime population developed through the Philippine Archipelago and Taiwan, the to south China. Dr. Solheim talks about the Nusantao, a maritime-oriented prehistoric people who spoke autronesian from data gathered in Mainland and Southeast Asia.Unlike Belwood who emphasizes horticulture, Solheim is uncertain whether or not this played a big role in the spreading of the language saying that proto-austronesian developed as trade language in the coast of Northern Luzon, South Taiwan, and South China during the Neolithic era, approximately 4500 BC-5000 BC.

Source: Pinoy Edition

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