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Curriculum Development

Curriculum Development


The Education Levels in the Philippines

Basic Education includes the following:
1. Kindergarten
2. Grade 1 – Grade 6 (elementary)
3. Grade 7 – Grade 10 (Junior High School)
4. Grade 11- 12 (Senior High School)

Technical Vocational Education
1. Taken care by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)
2. For the TechVoc track in SHS, DepEd and TESDA work in close coordination (Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) and Technical-Vocational-Livelihood (TVL) Track specializations may be taken between Grades 9 to 12. Exploratory Subjects at 40 hours per quarter are taken during Grades 7 to 8.)

Higher Education
Colleges with some courses. The new basic education levels are provided in the K to 12 Enhanced Curriculum of 2013

7 types of Curriculum According to Allan Glatthorn

1. Recommended Curriculum - The curriculum that is recommended by scholars and professional organizations.
Basic Education - Recommended by DepEd
Higher Education - Recommended by CHED
Vocational Education - TESDA
2. Written Curriculum - Documents based on recommended curriculum
 Example: syllabi, course of study, module, books or instructional guides, lesson plan.
3. Taught Curriculum - The curriculum which teachers actually deliver day by day.
4. Supported Curriculum - Includes those resources that support the curriculum-textbooks, software, and other media supporting materials that make learning and teaching meaningful print materials like books, charts, posters, worksheets, or non-print materials like Power Point presentations, movies, slides, models, mock ups, realias facilities – playground, laboratory, AV rooms, zoo, museum, market or plaza (places where direct experiences occur)
5. Learned Curriculum - The bottom-line curriculum it is the curriculum that students actually learn.
6. Assessed Curriculum - The curriculum which appears as tests and performance measures: state tests, standardized tests, district tests, and teacher-made tests.
7. Hidden/Implicit Curriculum - This is the unintended curriculum. It defines what students learn from the physical environment, the policies, and the procedures of the school. Not planned but has a great impact on students

Ways of Presenting the Curriculum

1.Topical Approach – Content is based on knowledge and experiences.
2. Concept Approach – Fewer topics in clusters around major and sub concepts.
3. Thematic – Combination of concepts.
4. Modular – Leads to complete units of instruction.

Criteria in the Selection of the Subject Matter

1. Self-Sufficiency – it is about helping the learners to attain the utmost independence in learning yet in an inexpensive way. It is the most important guiding principle in selecting the content according to Scheffler. This means, more of the results and effective learning outcomes though a lesser amount of the teacher’s effort and so with the learner’s effort.
2. Significance – It is significant if fundamental ideas, concepts, principles and generalization are supplied in the subject matter to achieve the overall aim of the curriculum.
3. Validity – The genuineness of a content selected is by its legality. The subject matter to be selected has to be legal to avoid selecting the obsolete ones.; must be verified at regular interval.
4. Interest – The learner’s interest is a major factor in selecting the content; one of the driving forces of the learner to learn better.
5. Utility - Deciding on subject matter, its usefulness is considered to be essential.
6. Learnability – if there is a quotation to “live within our means” then there is also the consideration of “teaching within the means of the learners.”
7. Feasibility – content selection takes into thought the possibility, the practicability and the achievability of the subject matter in terms of the availability of the resources, proficiency of the teachers, and the personality of learners especially within the framework of the society and the government

Guides in Addressing Content in the Curriculum

1. Balance – Content should be fairly distributed in depth and breadth.
2. Articulation - As the content complexity progresses, vertically or horizontally, smooth connections or bridging should be provided. This ensures that there is no gaps or overlaps in the content.
3. Sequence – Logical arrangement
- Vertically – For deepening the content
- Horizontally – For broadening the content
4. Integration – Relatedness or connection to other contents. Provides a holistic or unified view of curriculum instead of segmentation.
5. Continuity – Should be perennial, endures time. Constant repetition, reinforcement and enhancement are elements of continuity.

Four Phases of Curriculum Development

1. Curriculum Planning – Considers the school vision, mission, and goals; includes the philosophy or strong education belief of the school.
2. Curriculum Designing – The way curriculum is conceptualized to include the selection and organization of content, the selection and organization of learning experiences or activities and the selection of the assessment procedure and tools to measure achieved learning outcomes. Also include the resources to be utilized and the statement of the intended learning outcomes.
3. Curriculum Implementing – Putting into action the plan; it is where the action takes place; involves the activities transpire in every teacher’s classroom where learning becomes an active process.
4. Curriculum Evaluating – Determines the extent to which the desired outcomes have been achieved. This is an ongoing procedure as in finding out the progress of learning (formative) or the mastery of learning (summative)

Curriculum Development Process Models

Ralph Tyler Model : Four Basic Principles

  1. Purposes of the school
  2. Educational experiences related to the purposes
  3. Organization of the purposes
  4. Evaluation of the experience

Hilda Taba Model : Grassroots Approach

Taba strongly believed teachers should take part in the design of curricula. Taba’s model included seven steps:
  1. Educators must first identify the students’ needs for the development of the curriculum.
  2. Objectives should by specific.
  3. The content matches the objectives, as well as demonstrates validity.
  4. Curriculum content is designed based on students’ interest, development, and achievement.
  5. Instructional methods are selected by teachers.
  6. The organization of the learning activities is determined by the teacher.
  7. Evaluation procedures are determined by students and teachers.

Galen Sayler and Wiliam Alecander Curriculum Model 

Viewed curriculum development as consisting of four steps:
  1. Goals, Objectives and Domain
  2. Curriculum Designing
  3. Curriculum Implementation
  4. Evaluation

Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum

  1. Perennialism
  2. Essentialism
  3. Progressivism
  4. Reconstructionism

Elements/Components of a Curriculum Design

  1. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILO) or the Desired Learning Outcomes DLO
  2. Subject matter or content
  3. Teaching and learning methods
  4. Assessment /Evaluation

5 Categories of Curriculum Change

1. Substitution - Current curriculum will be replaced or substituted by a new one. Complete overhaul and not merely a revision.
2. Alteration - There is a minor change.
Example: graphing paper – to graphing calculator
3. Restructuring - Major change or modification in the school system, degree program or educational system.
4. Perturbations - Changes that are disruptive, but teachers have to adjust to them within a fairly short time.
Ex. Changes in time schedule to catch up with something
5. Value Orientation
Ex. A teacher who gives emphasis on academic and forget the formation of faith and values needs value orientation.

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